with profoundly different regimes? This chapter and this book cannot answer all of these questions satisfactorily, but they can help to provide some background and a framework for understanding how Germany and the Germans literally have come to where they are today. The focus, then, will be less on the larger issues of German identity over the past decades and more on the sources of identity of the people within Germany for the regions in which they live today. The Holy Roman Empire Following Charlemagne’s death, the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided his “Roman Empire
This chapter contains the translated and annotated text of Regino of Prüm’s Chronicle.
subsequent redress, or lack of, could leave supporters feeling aggrieved is evident from Nithard’s comment on the negotiations leading up to the first division of the Frankish empire in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. In the final chapter of the Histories , Nithard wrote that everywhere ‘dissension and struggle abound’. 59 As argued by Janet Nelson, Nithard’s pessimistic view was likely coloured by his own
Treaty of Verdun (843), which allocated approximately equal shares of the empire to all three parties. The ‘vertical’ division of western Europe it entailed (into West Francia, the Middle Kingdom and East Francia) would prove hugely influential in the long run, but at the time it was conceived as no more than provisional. 10 After 843, Lothar I’s concerns were primarily with
This chapter contains the translated text ofDe divortio. It has several underlying sections, responding to the questions that Hincmar initially received. These sections were, however, further divided to make the twenty-three responses which appear in the manuscript. The original sections are as follows: the procedure at the councils of Aachen, rules on marriage, divorce and remarriage, the validity of ordeals, the next steps in Theutberga's case, the sodomy charge, Lothar's relationship with Waldrada and sorcery, Lothar's possibilities of remarriage, and the response of bishops towards appeals to them and the case of Engeltrude. De divortio also deals with seven further questions which Hincmar received six months after the first: who is able to judge the king, can the king avoid further judgement in the case, the case of Engeltrude, and the effects of communion with the king.