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The tsarist regime and the revolt of the nomads in Central Asia, 1916
Jörn Happel

analytical letter from 2 December 1907 to the Governor-​General of Turkestan, N.  I. Grodekov, the governor of Semirech’e, General V. I. Pokotilo, cautioned against imminent upheavals and uprisings in the colony that could be provoked by the increased numbers of Russian settlers: In general the result of all these illegal (nezakonnyi) and superficial enterprises could be the following: a) the Kirgiz [Kyrgyz and Kazakhs], who are already in a panic, and seeing that they are really being deported from their native nest, will begin to riot; b) tens of thousands of new

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Abstract only
Resisting racism in times of national security

In times of national security, scholars and activists who hail from the communities under suspicion attempt to draw readers and listeners to the complexity of the world we inhabit. For those who campaigned against the SUS law in the 1980s, when young Black men were being routinely stopped in the streets, the wave of counter-terrorism legislation and policy that exists today will be very familiar. Similarly, recent discussions about the impact of drill music in the culture of young Black men has drawn questions around the ways in which they should be securitised, with senior police calling for the use of terrorism legislation against them. In this environment, when those who study and have lived alongside the communities who are at the scrutiny of the state raise questions about the government, military and police policy, they are often shut down as terrorist-sympathisers, or apologists for gang culture. In such environments, there is an expectation on scholars and activists to condemn what society at large fears. This volume is about how that expectation has emerged alongside the normalisation of racism, and how these writers choose to subvert the expectations raised on them, as part of their commitment to anti-racism.

Memorialising the revolt of 1916 in oral poetry
Jipar Duishembieva

Przheval’sk district.4 Losses among the Muslim insurgents were much higher. According to some sources, 123,000 people from Przheval’sk district and 47,000 from Pishpek district perished during the revolt.5 Thus, although the uprising of the northern Kyrgyz in Pishpek and Przheval’sk 289 290     The Central Asian Revolt of 1916 districts against the labour conscription order started considerably later than in other parts of Turkestan, it was ultimately bloodier and longer-​ lasting than in other areas, with dire consequences for both Kyrgyz and Slavic peasant settlers

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Imperial glaciers in Russian Central Asia
Christine Bichsel

the nineteenth and early twentieth century in Central Asia (or ‘Russian Turkestan’, as the region was then called). Take, for example, the Abramov Glacier ( Figure 6.1 ) in Kyrgyzstan: a key site of Soviet glaciology in Central Asia with an onsite research station hosting up to seventy scientists and support staff. The glaciological and meteorological data collected continuously from the Abramov Glacier since 1967 informs ongoing research on mountain glaciers and climate change today (see for example Denzinger et al ., 2021 ). Yet the very name of the Abramov

in Ice humanities
Lenin and Langston Hughes
Matthieu Renault

In the summer of 1920, the highlight of the Second World Congress of the Comintern, held in Moscow, was a debate organised by Lenin on ‘national and colonial questions’. Lenin laid down the terms of the debate in a series of theses, asking his ‘comrades’ to communicate their remarks on a list of issues: Ireland, national minorities from Central Europe and the Balkans, Russian Turkestan (Central Asia), the ‘peoples of the Orient’ and ‘Negroes in America’. For him, these were all ‘nations […] without equal

in The Red and the Black
Henry A. McGhie

needed to understand the distribution of birds there as many European species were also found further east (see plate 23 for a map of southern Central Asia). Most explora­ tion was carried out by Russia as part of a programme of imperial expansion (see chapter 6; see also Bassin, 1983; Postnikov, 2003a–d). Russia expanded Dresser.indb 125 125 03/10/2017 12:49:27 Henry Dresser and Victorian ornithology by military force into western Turkestan during 1865–76.14 Russia’s new territories were consolidated to form Russian Turkestan (now divided into Turkmenistan

in Henry Dresser and Victorian ornithology
Conflict with minorities
Terry Narramore

sought independence and, after an aborted attempt in 1933, established an East Turkestan Republic (1944–49). 23 These experiences, however limited, provided inspiration to later calls for independence from the PRC state. 24 Although the fractured Republican period allowed Tibet and Xinjiang greater scope to develop nationality claims, neither of the major parties contending for state power gave

in Violence and the state
The uprising of 1916 in Semirech’e
Aminat Chokobaeva

intended to plug a gaping hole left by the war in the draft-​eligible male population. Despite drafting only sons and physically unfit men, and dropping the minimum draft age by two years, the military was still short of a million labourers at the front. In part, this shortage of labour was caused by the policies of ethnic cleansing targeting ethnic Jews and Germans in the Western borderlands of the Empire, as well as the flight of civilians from the destruction, violence and hunger.6 In May 1916, the Council of Ministers resolved to draft the inorodtsy of Turkestan for

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Mobilizing artistic heritage in 1920s Uzbekistan
Mollie Arbuthnot

artistic traditions, reviving them, and reinterpreting their function in the new society. 6 Visual art could constitute a usable past for constructing Soviet culture. Two types of Islamic art—Tatar shamail prints and Persianate manuscript illustrations—presented themselves as appropriate usable pasts for poster artists in the Turkestan, and later Uzbek, Soviet Republic in the 1920s. This chapter centers on how their forms were adapted and appropriated, and the discursive contexts in which this process took place. It is

in Russian Orientalism in a global context
Chien-peng Chung

per cent by the Turkic Muslim Kazaks, and 40 per cent by the Han. Xinjiang's history of short-lived Uyghur independence movements in the 1930s and 1940s has inflamed the passions of some Uyghur militants to realise an independent Xinjiang, which they refer to as Uyghuristan or, more commonly, East Turkestan. Others typically want a minimum of recognition from the Chinese state that Xinjiang should be considered the historic homeland of the Uyghurs. For top officials in Xinjiang, the biggest challenge has been to prevent terrorist activities by alleged Uyghur

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition