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Abstract only
Michael D. Leigh

, coruscating events in Rangoon eclipsed the struggles of ordinary people. The Methodist Synod in Mandalay predicted a gloomy and uncertain future. 3 The sheer scale of destruction gnawed away at post-war Burmese politics and undermined public morale. In April 1945 Holden was airlifted into Upper Burma by the Civil Affairs Service Unit (CAS(B)) and he saw for himself the ‘desolation and ruin’ in Mandalay. Harrowing stories were on everyone’s lips. Firth landed in Rangoon in November 1945. A pall of shock and excitement hung over the

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
Abstract only
Michael D. Leigh

The Upper Burma Mission began as most corporate projects do – with a gleam in an enthusiast’s eye, a feasibility study and a campaign to persuade the Board. Rev. W.R. Winston was the enthusiast, Burma the gleam in his eye and the Wesleyan Conference was the Board. 1 Winston was agog when the British took Mandalay in 1885. He had been Chairman of the North Ceylon Wesleyan District for thirteen years and wanted new challenges. Burma answered his prayers. An irascible Lancastrian, Winston was the personification of a

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
Abstract only
Michael D. Leigh

were not a problem. They were packed off to expensive boarding schools in England, surreptitiously placed in mission schools in Upper Burma or disowned by their fathers and left to run around as urchins. There is a tantalising glimpse of one Eurasian boy called William Sellick in Mandalay. At Wesley Boys High School he became ‘a leader of the young Christians’. In 1913, aged twenty-one, he became a candidate for the Wesleyan ministry. 16 His father, a major in the Indian Medical Service, was a brilliant and charming

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
Michael D. Leigh

The war seemed a long way off in 1941. It was still a phoney war in Upper Burma. There was no black-out or rationing. The townships were more peaceful than they had been since 1913. 1 Pupils at Mandalay Girls High School held jumble-sales in aid of English Methodists, and Christians in Chauk sent £10 to help the British war effort. 2 Europeans and wealthy Indians subscribed to a war-fund that raised Rs 2.5m. The civil strife of past decades had subsided but it was not forgotten. Chapman was still angered

in Conflict, politics and proselytism

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Transfrontier salt and opium, 1904–11
Emily Whewell

In 1885, Britain annexed ‘Upper Burma’ as part of British India, an area comprising the central plains and northern region of present-day Myanmar. In order to secure its sovereignty, Britain required not only the compliance of local headmen in parts of Upper Burma, but also legal recognition from Burma’s tributary sovereign: China. After signing the subsequent ‘Convention relating to Burma and Thibet’ (1886), China formally accepted British sovereignty. A further amendment, the ‘Convention between Great Britain and China, giving effect to Article III of 24th

in Law across imperial borders
Royal exile in British Asia
Robert Aldrich

Tenarassim; following a second war, in 1853, their holdings expanded to include Rangoon and the rest of ‘Lower Burma’. In 1885, Britain completed the conquest by taking over the royal capital of Mandalay and ‘Upper Burma’, and as part of that third campaign, the colonisers dethroned and exiled King Thibaw and his consort Queen Supayalat. 54 Thibaw’s predecessor, King Mindon, who ruled from

in Banished potentates
Patrick O’Leary

invasion of Afghanistan, the continuing cost of security on the north-west frontier and the annexation of Upper Burma in 1885. 11 Thus, between 25 and 30 per cent of revenue was available to serve the interests of the Indian population. A summation of this period from an Indian point of view sees it as being governed by an ideology of ‘paternalistic benevolence, occasionally

in Servants of the empire
Negotiations at the end of British rule in the Shan States of Burma (Myanmar)
Susan Conway

followed that led to fighting, looting and pillaging across the country. Into this chaos marched Colonel Sir Edward Stedman with a column of British troops. By 1887 he had established a degree of order. In contrast to their strategy in Lower Burma, the British adopted an enlightened policy towards Shan and minority rulers. They agreed to respect the culture and customs of the Shan princes and other ethnic groups in Upper Burma, in so far as they were considered just and not contradictory to the laws of British India. In return, rulers agreed to swear allegiance to Queen

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Abstract only
Emily Whewell

the province. The fear of Russian influence in Central Asia also made British colonial and consular authorities turn to Tibet. British legal rights were granted in the trade marts of Yadong (1894) and Gyantse and Gartok (1904) following the Sino-British Appended Sikkim-Tibet Convention (1893). The Tibetan trade marts had no consulates, but a British Indian Political Officer had some jurisdictional powers in trade disputes which involved a British defendant. 39 To the southwest, Upper Burma became subsumed into the province of Burma and part of British India in 1885

in Law across imperial borders