(but see Smith, 2014c).
This chapter completes the in-depth studies of Part II. I have fathomed particular examples of inter-civilisational engagement. My survey includes oceanic civilisations, the Oceanian civilisation, Latin American movements of
political and culturalengagements and, finally, Japan’s exceptional encounter
with the West and instances of political and culturalengagement that ensued.
I have examined, to varying degrees in all cases, the four dimensions of inter-
civilisational engagement to support my critical synthesis of the illuminating
tensions and leaves you, the reader,
with questions around teaching, learning, research, knowledge and community
culturalengagement in the contemporary university to explore. Our discussion
is not intended to be an exhaustive summary – and we ourselves do not always
have the answers to our own questions – but rather to provide a sketchmap of
query, reflection and meaning-making that interacts with the contributors’ ideas
and endeavours, as well as with past and contemporary aesthetic, adult education,
lifelong learning and higher education discourses.
is a way to address some of the unequal patterns of culturalengagement. We discuss these in Chapter 4 .
The social view of health allows the report to take in a wide range of health effects. It looks across the life course from birth to old age and death, and at place and community level effects. It has a broad view of culture, citing the theorists Raymond Williams 30 and Pierre Bourdieu 31 to establish an anthropological take on culture grounded in culturalengagement and experience. It is similar to Understanding the Value of Arts & Culture .
south of the United States, yet vitally enriched by many traditions. The neglect
of Latin America’s multi-civilisational history was not only the sin of Europeans.
The post-revolutionary technocratic state in Mexico was fanatically positivist. Its
investment in positivism left the state unreceptive to the many civilisational identities and influences that formed Mexico. His preference was culturalengagement.
Reyes responded to the aftermath of the 1910 revolution with caution, asserting culture over violence and
totally unrepresentative of the patterns of culturalengagement in the working-class population.
The remaining chapters explain these inequalities by analysing key points in the life course of a cultural worker. They also continue the themes we’ve introduced earlier in the book.
Chapter 5 discusses the role of culture in our cultural workers’ childhoods. It shows the role of individualisation of inequalities, along with the problem of seemingly shared experiences.
Many of the patterns of inequalities we’ve seen in production and consumption begin in childhood
questionnaires and standard participation
surveys is that a significant number do after all turn out to be, or to have
been at some time, engaged with the realm of legitimate culture. This
highlights an important issue with the use of standard indicators for culturalengagement, which cannot account for the ways in which people, regardless
of what they actually do, decide to identify – or not – as a particular type of
A number of non-users refer to a kind of incidental participation in formal
culture, which is presented in largely instrumental terms. Often this
across dimensions of migration, economic movements and connections, culturalengagement and the political reconstruction of civilisational models.
Historical engagement entails dis-engagement also. The non-borrowings, dissonances and conflicts of civilisations are noted alongside cases of fragmentation and the collapse of large empires.
The outline of inter-civilisational engagement in Chapter 4 is broad in scope.
I pepper the argument with examples to illustrate key points. One aim of Debating
Civilisations is to sketch an
cross-national/culturalengagement. For this reason, sport,
among other cultural forms such as the visual and performing arts, has been championed in the White Paper and elsewhere as a promising domain of diplomacy (broadly
defined as encompassing political, economic, social and cultural exchange in both
formal and informal environments).34 The place of sport within Australian diplomacy
of different kinds now requires more detailed exploration.
Sport and diplomacy in Australia
In seeking to capture an elusive concept there is a significant and growing body