the Second World War have endeavoured to harness international cooperation to address non-economic issues like protection of human rights, labourconditions and the environment, and the improvement of human health. Only
during the late 1990s did the idea that globalisation needed to be civilised take
root as a conscious strategy.
1 J. Bové and F. Dufour, The World Is Not for Sale: Farmers Against Junk Food (London:
Verso, 2001), p. 5.
2 W. Northcutt, ‘José Bové vs. McDonald’s: The Making of a National Hero in the
conditions are now open to scrutiny and potential loss of brand image. As a result, domestic policies around labourconditions reflect foreign anxieties as well as local pressures. Embarrassment at low rankings in international standards measures can also expedite policy change. Cases of poor quality in food imports and foreign restaurant chains are also publicised in China as a way of ‘measuring’ the progress made under the strict new laws and regulations.
The need for the Party-State to be seen to protect its citizens from the cyclical economic patterns that have
before his arrival in Britain in 1936. In 1931, his name had appeared
on a list of Communist functionaries, passed to MI5 by agents of the Secret
Intelligence Service in Germany, so ensuring that a personal file was opened
on him.1 Kuczynski had entered Britain on the pretext of writing a book on
British labourconditions which he intended to research at the reading
room of the British Museum. In an interview with the Home Office, he
explained that he was free to return to Germany, but as a Jew was denied
access to research institutions there.2
JK (as he refers to
, press all the right environmental buttons. 18
9.3 In 2015 Prince Charles visited the mill as part of his ongoing work with The Campaign for Wool. Courtesy of Abraham Moon and Sons.
Besides ecological matters, concerns over labourconditions in Asian factories have furthered the wool renaissance. Consumer awareness of third-world sweatshops increased after the widespread press coverage of two tragedies in the Bangladeshi garment industry—the fire at the Tazreen Fashions factory in November 2012 and the collapse of the Rana Plaza
four per cent (French Guiana) and nine per cent (Martinique). 16 At the end
of the inter-war period, as at the beginning, recourse to increased
taxation flowed naturally from the overriding need to balance
Colonial governments generally
regulated workers’ employment terms and labourconditions
this phenomenon. In Precarious Rhapsody Franco Berardi ( 2009 a) discusses the ways in which contemporary labourconditions are structured to produce not just fear, but panic, partly as a result of the information overload that the infosphere produces and that is no longer processable by humans. However, bodily interventions through intimate labour are not entirely regulated through the infosphere or the technosphere. In many instances such interventions occur at the interface between individuals who interrelate in the process of those interventions, and larger
from all over the world. This is what precarity is – it’s both a condition of exploitation and an opportunity (Foti 2004 (my italics))
As Gerald Raunig ( 2007 ) argues, there is a subtle difference of discourse between the first demonstrations in the French McDonald’s restaurants and the emancipation discourse proclaimed by Foti. In 2000, the aim was to protest against precarious labourconditions, whereas in later discourses, the ‘precariat’ has claimed visibility for itself; it has changed from something to be prevented to a self-designation. This claim
the persistence of the working-class family’,
Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1:3 (1977) 241–258. Reprinted in Held, D. and Giddens,
A. (eds), Class Conflict and Power: A Reader (London: Macmillan), pp. 470–91.
Humphries, J. and Rubery, J. (1984), ‘The reconstitution of the supply side of the labour
market: the relative autonomy of social reproduction’, Cambridge Journal of Economics,
Humphries, J. and Weisdorf, J. (2015), ‘The wages of women in England, 1260–1850’,
Journal of Economic History, 75:2, 405–47.
Kenyon, N. (1962), ‘Labourconditions in
The shifting boundaries of politics in Norwegian healthcare
volume). The current overall and consensual political framing of the welfare state as in ‘crisis’ is understood as constituting a hegemonic narrative, and representing a critical juncture that creates a ‘window of opportunity’ for radical change in public welfare (see also Vabø 2015 ). At this juncture, labourconditions and employment arrangements in the municipal healthcare sector seem to fall outside most policy frames, something that is indicative of a non-recognition of labour as a political category in this context as well as of a change in the boundaries of
Foster and his colleagues concluded that this was
a typical example of “ecological imperialism” that
brutally gave impetus to the “enormous net flow of
ecological resources from South to North” and facilitated labourconditions that Marx called “worse than
slavery”.43 Crucial to this story was that the extraction of guano from Peru’s islands and coastline was
organised by colonial trading companies. The trade
WHYTE 9781526146984 PRINT.indd 86
From colonialism to ecocide
to Britain was organised by Anthony Gibb and Son
(now part of the