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Convict servitude and the reworking of the private sphere, c.1817–42
Kirsty Reid

and an assault upon the labour conditions, freedom and independence of convicts. As we saw in chapter three, until the early 1820s, most convicts made their own housing and domestic arrangements, and consequently they were relatively free to live and work as they chose, particularly in their own time. The opening of convict institutions like the Hobart barracks in the early 1820s marked the beginning

in Gender, crime and empire
Kate Bowan
Paul A. Pickering

yesterday celebrated Labour Day in the customary manner and, in this city, under favourable auspices,’ he wrote. ‘It had long been recognised that in the colonies of the British Empire labour conditions generally are superior to those existing in older countries, and, in New Zealand in particular, the lot of the worker is usually one that leaves very little room for grumbling.’ 130 Having witnessed the

in Sounds of liberty
Nicola Ginsburgh

January 1948, p. 1. 190 ‘Suggestion to Improve Native Labour Conditions’, Rhodesia Herald , 9 April 1948, p. 11. 191 Vambe, Rhodesia to Zimbabwe , p. 245. 192 Lessing, Going Home , p. 252. 193 Granite Review , December 1942, p. 12. 194 Minutes of the 1946 RRWU Conference , p. 149. 195 ‘African Trade Unions’, RRR , November 1946, p. 3. 196 Samkange, ‘Rhodesia Labour Party’, pp. 53–90. 197 ICOMM: 1, Memo Re. Split SRLP from RLP, p. 1. 198 ICOMM:, Constitution, p. 2. 199 Ibid. 200 ‘The Labour Party vs

in Class, work and whiteness
Martin Thomas

of between four per cent (French Guiana) and nine per cent (Martinique). 16 At the end of the inter-war period, as at the beginning, recourse to increased taxation flowed naturally from the overriding need to balance budgets. Labour supply Colonial governments generally regulated workers’ employment terms and labour conditions

in The French empire between the wars
Gordon T. Stewart

compare conditions of life and labour in this country with those obtaining in Dundee’. They reminded their Dundee audience that the Royal Commission on Labour of 1890 set up by the Government of India had found nothing wrong with labour conditions in the Calcutta mills. The IJMA presented the Calcutta mills as a great boon to the poorer classes of Bengal. ‘The Jute Mills in Bengal’, they admonished the

in Jute and empire
Frank Uekötter

response, tappers could turn to independent suppliers or switch dealers, but the location of their trade severely limited their range of options. In fact, quite a number of tappers eventually realised that they were operating at a loss. 6 Labour conditions in the Amazon became subject to international scrutiny when the muckraking British weekly Truth began to publish a series of

in Sites of imperial memory
Anandi Ramamurthy

groups by 1900 about slave-labour conditions on the cocoa estates of two Portuguese controlled islands, Sao Thomé and Principe, off the coast of West Africa. Sao Thomé cocoa was known to be of good quality and although Cadbury’s and other cocoa manufacturers did not buy cocoa direct from the islands, a third of the cocoa from Sao Thomé was imported into England in the 1900s and

in Imperial persuaders
Anandi Ramamurthy

contexts of images, although I realise that it is not always possible to analyse advertising images in this way. Soap advertising enables an exploration of the soap companies’ interests in the palm oil resources of West Africa. Cocoa advertising reveals company interests in raw materials, as well as specific kinds of labour conditions. Tea marketing enables company interests in particular kinds of production

in Imperial persuaders
Central African medicines and poisons and knowledge-making in the empire, c.1859–c.1940
Markku Hokkanen

involved the Lomwe, recent migrants from Mozambique. 64 Lomwe workers were later characterised as being particularly unwilling to report sickness by colonial officials investigating labour conditions in Cholo district in 1931. 65 Despite the generalising nature of such colonial statements, there may have been pronounced suspicion towards colonial authorities and health

in Medicine, mobility and the empire
Georgina Sinclair

time he had been critical of the force’s overall efficiency. A decade later he reported that their efficacy had deteriorated still further. He explained this deterioration in terms of the post-war environment in which he observed changes in the political situation, labour conditions, trade union activities, education, cinemas

in At the end of the line