In London, according to official figures, half the entire school
population was evacuated. 6 Susan Isaacs, Lucy Fildes and John Bowlby,
a young medically trained psychologist who had studied with most
major figures in English psychology and psychoanalysis at the time,
including Melanie Klein and Cyril Burt, were amongst a growing group
of psychologists and
Balance, malleability and anthropology: historical contexts
the above-mentioned discussions of adaptation and evolution, to the varied concepts of psychoanalysis, where early experiences are said to mould future character and pathology to an enormous extent. This emerges very clearly in child guidance.
It is also evident in some strands of sociology – even as part of those ideas that deploy concepts of culture as a measure of civilisation.
What I am arguing instead, is that an
to conceptualise the
external world. 45
In the 1920s, many professionals working with children began to use
the concept of hallucination readily in the description of
In 1922, Piaget gave a paper at the International
Conference on Psychoanalysis in Berlin, entitled ‘ La
pensée symbolique et la pensée de
psychoanalysis. The outcomes of treatment
for sexual deviations by various psychoanalytical techniques were
rather poor, despite the optimism expressed by some.159 Indeed,
David Curran and Daniel Parr found the rate of improvement to be
no greater in twenty-five of their cases treated by psychoanalysis than
in twenty-five others who received little or no treatment.160 In 1958,
Mary Woodward reported a series of homosexual patients referred
by the courts and treated with psychoanalysis at the London Institute
for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency. Out of 113 referred for
voluntary admission for the wealthy, focusing on retaining high-paying patients and decreasing charitable admissions in their institutions.
A number of important innovations in the early twentieth century, from the identification of diseases like schizophrenia and tertiary syphilis to the rise of Freud and psychoanalysis, helped mind doctors retain relevance.
But there also continued to be a disconnect between cutting-edge medical thinking and lay beliefs, just as there was in
time machine in being so perceptive in seeing where the contemporary debates about the mental hygiene movement might lead. The popularisation of psychological ideas really took hold in the interwar period through the creation of a practical popular psychology that owed less to Freud and psychoanalysis and more to an eclectic British interpretation of such ideas. 72 Indeed, in this book psychoanalysis features very little, mainly because, except for one or two of the self-help books examined, it was largely absent from people's experiences and therefore their
particularly evident in his formulation of the midlife crisis. Jaques had begun to think about the concept in 1952 – at the age of 35 – during a period of personal reflection on the challenges of midlife. When he first presented the paper to the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1957 it generated only a muted response, and it was not published in the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis until eight years later.
In the article, Jaques argued that during the middle years of life growing awareness of personal death
genetic counseling’, in G. D. Feldberg (ed.), Women, Health and Nation: Canada and the United States since 1945 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003), pp. 67–83; A. M. Stern, Telling Genes: The Story of Genetic Counseling in America (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012), in particular pp. 77–90. For the psychologization of genetic information and disability see M. A. Schmidt, ‘Birth defects, family dynamics, and mourning loss: psychoanalysis, genetic counseling and disability, 1950–1980’, Psychoanalysis and History , 21:2 (2019), 147
proliferation of academic disciplines.
Similarly, the self became tied to new political projects, which, as recent scholarship has suggested, often searched for balance as a response to the age of extremes. In The War Inside , for example, Michal Shapira has explored how psychoanalysis provided important perspectives on welfare, the family and democracy in public and political discourse. With particular emphasis on children and the maternal relationship in the formation of reasonable, well-adjusted selves, psychoanalysts
From colonial to cross-cultural psychiatry in Nigeria
Matthew M. Heaton
infrastructure in Nigeria was therefore local, national and international.
This chapter builds upon recent research in the history of psychiatry that has already begun complicating the use of binary constructions and the notion that international science tends to serve ‘external’ masters in colonial spaces. For example, recent comparative work in the history of psychoanalysis has shown how the construction of a universal self has had significant global impact, but in diverse ways depending on the local context in which it has been employed. Psychoanalytic