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Steven Earnshaw

Introduction In this chapter I aim to give a sense of some of the most important critical work on literary realism from the mid-twentieth century to the present. The field is complex, contributing no doubt to the belief that realism is a ‘slippery’ term, and there can be no attempt here to be comprehensive. I begin by giving a sketch of the different channels of thought and arguments, and also place them in relation to the discussion on the preceding pages. One aspect that will emerge as significant, and which has not been quite so apparent as yet, is the

in Beginning realism
Steven Earnshaw

The reader of realism naturally focuses on content, not style. (Spector in Bloom 1987 : 231) I have made repeated reference to the importance of language in discussions of realism, and in this chapter we look at the different ways in which language is conceptualised in relation to discussion of realism. As I pointed out at the end of Chapter 8 , such a discussion cuts across both literary critical concerns and philosophy. The title ‘The language of Realism’ is not intended to suggest that there is a single aspect to the use of language in realism, but

in Beginning realism
Richard Hewett

70 2 Refining studio realism By the early 1960s, television was more established in both reach and form, yet despite significant technological shifts its production processes remained largely unchanged. Actor experience had increased, yet an analysis of studio realism during this period as the result solely of actors’ increased familiarity with the medium is complicated by external factors; primarily, the advent in British television and film of social realism. Though frequently linked with a particular ‘type’ or sub-​genre of television drama, e.g. the work

in The changing spaces of television acting
Sound and image in Alan Clarke’s Road
Paul Elliott

the viewer access into the worlds of characters on the margins of society. It is an intimate narrative that is, at the same time, universal and political. What distinguishes Road as a piece of television is its aesthetic form. Commensurate with Clarke's oeuvre, it presents a coming together of popular realism (arguably television's basic style) and subtle experimentation. 3 This combination is both familiar and challenging and neatly answers questions raised by critics of TV naturalism in the 1960s. As I shall

in Sound / image
Brett Bowles

realism and appealed strongly to Depression-era spectators as an antidote to France’s perceived cultural decadence. Pagnol was of course not the first filmmaker to shoot extensively on location in the countryside. By the 1910s a number of European directors were already experimenting with real landscapes and natural light to enhance the authenticity, visual depth, and psychological intensity of their work

in Marcel Pagnol
A historical perspective
Yan Geng

Realism, socialist realism and China’s avant-garde: a historical perspective Yan Geng In January 1993 a large exhibition entitled ‘China’s New Art, Post-1989’, consisting of 150 works from some of the most important contemporary artists in mainland China, opened as the showcase of the Hong Kong Arts Festival. One of the chief curators of the exhibition, Chang Tsong-zung (Johnson Chang), was based in Hong Kong and played a key role in establishing the international image of contemporary Chinese art.1 Chang created the exhibition with the aim of elucidating the

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Richard Hewett

223 5 The return of studio realism? It is Saturday night, and on the television screen three men can be seen, crouching round a small box, listening intently in the latest scene from live drama The Quatermass Experiment. By this point in the story it has become clear that something untoward happened in the depths of space to the crew of Britain’s first manned rocket, and the on-​screen trio are now playing back a recording of the astronauts’ final moments. To the left, the trench-​coated Quatermass holds a silencing finger aloft, gesturing at moments of

in The changing spaces of television acting
Richard Hewett

117 3 The genesis of location realism By the mid-​ 1970s, studio realism might be expected to have reached its apotheosis, yet it was by no means all-​encompassing as a style of television acting, and there were already elements in play that would ultimately come to threaten its primacy as the dominant mode of acting in British television drama. The decade saw the emergence of various factors that would influence actors’ work at the Corporation, beginning with the BBC’s further investment in its existing rehearsal and recording model via the opening in 1970 of

in The changing spaces of television acting
Richard Hewett

165 4 The age of location realism By the time Doctor Who and Survivors were re-​made in the mid to late ​2000s, the television drama landscape had been transformed in virtually every respect. The rehearsal room/​studio recording template was now the sole domain of situation comedy, and while certain soaps still utilised multi-​camera recording, it was no longer accompanied by a prior preparation period. Although constructed sets still played a role, they were to be found on soundstages rather than in the comparatively cramped confines of Television Centre

in The changing spaces of television acting
Room at the Top (1959)
Neil Sinyard

the Top has been widely credited with launching the ‘new wave’ in British film, bringing realism, the working class and sex to the national cinema. Made during the year when film production was ceasing at Ealing, it seemed symbolically to displace an Ealing tradition of gentility and restraint and raise the whole emotional temperature of British film. Four years after its première, Penelope Houston could write that

in Jack Clayton