different in this regard. Its creators appropriated the same seven-day
cycle and infused it with Old Testament lore, according to the belief
that God had created the world in six days and rested on the seventh.
Backed by the authority of Biblical scripture, the seven-day ritual was
subsequently institutionalised as the collective regulator of society,
enshrined in the concept of the Sabbath (the word itself deriving
While the law existed as the ever-present regulator, Queen and
Country will show that in the context of homosex in the armed forces
during the Second World War, it was less than consistently applied. The
question therefore becomes when, why and how were those legal frameworks put into operation? The institution did not oppose bonds between
men and between women. On the contrary, homosociability was one of
the fundamental tenets of the services. When opposition was voiced, it
was largely because extensions of that foundational relationship were
• 17 •
2016 that in schools
with more than 50 per cent of Muslims there ought to be bussing in order
to bring about an enforced mixing.81 Needless to say, in the wake of the
disastrous 2014 Trojan Horse affair, when the regulator OFSTED claimed
to have found evidence of Islamist infiltration of some twenty-one schools
in Birmingham, such recommendations had an air of muscular common
sense about them, despite the disturbing complexity of the issues involved.
It is fairly obvious that neither Lampl nor the former head of the CRE
appears to be cognisant of the shady side of
The Vitae of Italo-Greek saints (twelfth and thirteenth centuries) and the negotiation of local identities
, and thereby establish him as regulator of the community’s life. After Luke’s death and probable replacement by a Latin bishop, the priests assumed his role. They displayed his sanctity and were eager to produce and disseminate his Vita in an effort to persuade the community, as well as Latin authorities, to accept their socio-religious role. A posthumous miracle by the saint can be interpreted in the same way, since it might refer to tensions provoked by local Latin magnates who demanded abusive taxes from the Italo-Greek clergy. 14 A certain ‘Frank’ (Φράγκος
Marguerite Dupree, Anne Marie Rafferty, and Fay Bound Alberti
high political stakes for governments. 17
Regulators see issues surrounding hospital hygiene standards and cleanliness as symptomatic of wider systems failures, and as a principal measure of healthcare quality. Thus, hospital infections serve as a key performance indicator, and infection prevention and control are an important part of a wider patient safety agenda within hospitals. 18
Foreshadowed in the 1970s by the criticisms in Ivan Illich’s influential polemic, Medical Nemesis , in which he argued that modern medicine was a major threat to world health
women, the Bader Committee argued that the ‘home environment’ was essential for the emotional health of pilots and was particularly important to mitigate the effects of personal stress ‘leading to fatigue’.
Time at home had, the Bader Committee held, both physical and emotional benefits. To this end, pilot fatigue was transformed in regulatory discourse. Once framed in primarily physiological terms, by the 1970s the psychological and social pressures of commercial aviation were central to regulators’ understanding
rise of clinical trials was massively predicated on their internalisation by drug companies, on their blending with scientific marketing, and on the absence of alternative producers of drug-related clinical knowledge.
This does not imply that state authorities and administrative regulation played no role in these developments. The contrast between the trajectories of Ludiomil and Levoprotiline readily show the opposite, since the first one passed the regulatory test without difficulties while Ciba-Geigy never convinced German regulators that the
process, which owes as much to agency as to conditioning’. See E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class
(Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2013) p. 8.
64 See also De Vries et al., ‘Social Science and Bioethics’.
65 Imber, ‘Medical Publicity before Bioethics’, p. 21.
66 Michael Moran, The British Regulatory State: High Modernism and
Hyper-Innovation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
67 Culliton and Waterfall, ‘Flowering of American Bioethics’, p. 1270.
68 Charlotte Santry, ‘Healthcare Regulator Longed for Government’s
Embrace’, Health Service Journal, 12
The working lives of paid carers from 1800 to the 1990s
Anne Borsay and Pamela Dale
relatives frequently raise questions about
nursing care, not realising that only part of the workforce are trained
nurses with professional qualifications.93 In these circumstances
nurses and nurse managers (with and without specialist responsibilities for the mentally disordered) are vulnerable to criticism with
regard to their own clinical practice, information-sharing with colleagues/regulators, maintenance of minimum care standards and/or
staffing ratios, and the management of subordinate care staff. Official
reports and media coverage from the present will surely
The historian’s dilemmas in a time of health-care reform
the Affordable Care Act does not
operate ‘in [an] are[a] … where States historically have been
sovereign’. As evidenced by Medicare, Medicaid, the Employee
Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), and the Health Insurance
Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), the Federal
Government plays a lead role in the health-care sector, both as a direct
payer and as a regulator