community. He became a prolific writer and much of his work contains a good deal of social commentary. 37 In a sermon delivered to a confraternity in Brescia in 1250, he exhorted the members to live a godly life of service. Quoting many relative passages from the scriptures, Albertanus suggested that the first basis for the rule of their congregation was the selfless administration of charity. 38 The many references to Augustine in his sermon included the injunction, ‘Whoever gives to a poor person not to refresh the belly of the needy one, but to remove the weariness
and seventy lines. The fifth and last ‘question’ is not even posed
as such. Zosimas is astonished that Mary can freely quote from
Scripture (XVIII, 1023–30) and ‘persawit’, i.e. deduces, that she
has read the holy writings or at least parts of them. To his puzzlement, Mary responds that she has never heard anybody read from
Scripture nor read it herself (1039–44). Thus, the last question
of Zosimas’s ‘interview’ is an imagined one and anticipated by
Mary’s answer without him actually uttering it.
The conversation between Zosimas and Mary, consequently, is
in German between 1619 and 1649, and one in Latin – published in Germany – in 1624. 5 Garzoni came from Bagnacavallo, near Ravenna, went to schools in Ravenna and Imola, and studied law and philosophy at Ferrara and Siena. He entered the Congregation of Lateran Canons and got assignments to teach sacred scripture and to preach. These he carried out for over two decades in Treviso, Venice, Padua, Ferrara, and Mantua. Not a particularly original or creative writer, Garzoni was an encyclopedist, skilled at gathering and putting in order vast amounts of written
Scriptures, which was confused and obscure in the texts that preceded his arrival. Although Christ had not rejected this ancient heritage, which could always work as a point of reference, he had nevertheless modified its meaning. 50 The way in which the De raptu treats references from the Old Testament corroborates this view; those were the only passages that Hincmar felt obliged to gloss.
For matters of sexuality, the laity were considered by Hincmar as those best able to know the reality and judge it, 51 as he explicitly stated elsewhere
An inquiry into the decline of pilgrimages and crusading
Charles T. Wood
any century would find in a faith based on scriptures that tell of a God who became man and dwelt here amongst us. Kimhi starts with the popular belief, commonly accepted among Christians, that the Holy Spirit had impregnated the Virgin through her ear, certainly a physiological improbability, and yet not an entirely implausible hypothesis for those knowing that Jesus the Christ was also the Incarnate Word. Nevertheless, because Rabbi Kimhi knows no such thing, he counters with temporal experience and the teachings of science:
[E] very intelligent person knows
John Wyclif (d. 1384) was among the leading schoolmen of fourteenth-century Europe. He was an outspoken controversialist and critic of the church, and, in his last days at Oxford, the author of the greatest heresy that England had known. This volume offers translations of a representative selection of his Latin writings on theology, the church and the Christian life. It offers a comprehensive view of the life of this charismatic but irascible medieval theologian, and of the development of the most prominent dissenting mind in pre-Reformation England. This collection will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students of medieval history, historical theology and religious heresy, as well as scholars in the field.
him’, as Rufino put it, ‘from his spiritual practices’. Raymond became increasingly preoccupied with living a holy life and devoted his time away from work to informing himself about the teachings of scripture and then to transmitting what he had learned to his fellow workers. Rufino then explains that getting married had not been Raymond’s idea in the first place but that God had allowed him to be persuaded by his relatives to get married so that ‘his [God’s] saint should experience what trials those joined in marriage undergo, in feeding and bringing up children
the crusading vocation became revered by many as the fulfilment of the Church’s ambitions for peace in Europe. Thus, the prestige, valour, and heroism attached to the returning veterans were imbued with a uniquely Christian ethic, part of what made them such powerful challengers to the ruling elite. It follows, then, that in virtually all of these second-generation chronicles, the ultimate success of the first crusaders is seen as ‘the literal fulfilment of certain prophecies in scripture’. 51 The knights were doing the work of God, as the title selected by Guibert
outward self designates, but the mind of each man which is that man.’ The doctors of the Church, Augustine and others, agreed. If anyone doubts this, read Scriptures, which ascribe to the soul a certain rulership over the person, and compare the body to an inn or garment. 102
If the soul is the defining organ of the self, per this account, where is it situated in the body? In the Metalogicon , John implies that the rational part of the soul is situated in the head, the seat of all senses. Just as the head is ‘ in arce rei publicae ’, reason
John’s mind when he referred to ‘books of offices’. This text, strongly dependent on Cicero’s De officiis , offers a discussion of two important aspects of the theory of officia , namely a distinction between ‘perfect’ and ‘middle’ duties and an account of the relationship between the exercise of appropriate duties and mechanisms of societal bonding. Furthermore, Ambrose provides a rationale for the consideration of officia by Christian thinkers, referring to the officium of Zacharias the priest, as described in Scripture. 55 Ambrose, drawing on Cicero