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Abstract only
Character depiction and direct discourse
Eva von Contzen

between ten and seventy lines. The fifth and last ‘question’ is not even posed as such. Zosimas is astonished that Mary can freely quote from Scripture (XVIII, 1023–30) and ‘persawit’, i.e. deduces, that she has read the holy writings or at least parts of them. To his puzzlement, Mary responds that she has never heard anybody read from Scripture nor read it herself (1039–44). Thus, the last question of Zosimas’s ‘interview’ is an imagined one and anticipated by Mary’s answer without him actually uttering it. The conversation between Zosimas and Mary, consequently, is as

in The Scottish Legendary
Lester K. Little

in German between 1619 and 1649, and one in Latin – published in Germany – in 1624. 5 Garzoni came from Bagnacavallo, near Ravenna, went to schools in Ravenna and Imola, and studied law and philosophy at Ferrara and Siena. He entered the Congregation of Lateran Canons and got assignments to teach sacred scripture and to preach. These he carried out for over two decades in Treviso, Venice, Padua, Ferrara, and Mantua. Not a particularly original or creative writer, Garzoni was an encyclopedist, skilled at gathering and putting in order vast amounts of written

in Indispensable immigrants
Sylvie Joye

Scriptures, which was confused and obscure in the texts that preceded his arrival. Although Christ had not rejected this ancient heritage, which could always work as a point of reference, he had nevertheless modified its meaning. 50 The way in which the De raptu treats references from the Old Testament corroborates this view; those were the only passages that Hincmar felt obliged to gloss. For matters of sexuality, the laity were considered by Hincmar as those best able to know the reality and judge it, 51 as he explicitly stated elsewhere

in Hincmar of Rheims
An inquiry into the decline of pilgrimages and crusading
Charles T. Wood

any century would find in a faith based on scriptures that tell of a God who became man and dwelt here amongst us. Kimhi starts with the popular belief, commonly accepted among Christians, that the Holy Spirit had impregnated the Virgin through her ear, certainly a physiological improbability, and yet not an entirely implausible hypothesis for those knowing that Jesus the Christ was also the Incarnate Word. Nevertheless, because Rabbi Kimhi knows no such thing, he counters with temporal experience and the teachings of science: [E] very intelligent person knows

in Law, laity and solidarities
Lester K. Little

him’, as Rufino put it, ‘from his spiritual practices’. Raymond became increasingly preoccupied with living a holy life and devoted his time away from work to informing himself about the teachings of scripture and then to transmitting what he had learned to his fellow workers. Rufino then explains that getting married had not been Raymond’s idea in the first place but that God had allowed him to be persuaded by his relatives to get married so that ‘his [God’s] saint should experience what trials those joined in marriage undergo, in feeding and bringing up children

in Indispensable immigrants
James Naus

the crusading vocation became revered by many as the fulfilment of the Church’s ambitions for peace in Europe. Thus, the prestige, valour, and heroism attached to the returning veterans were imbued with a uniquely Christian ethic, part of what made them such powerful challengers to the ruling elite. It follows, then, that in virtually all of these second-generation chronicles, the ultimate success of the first crusaders is seen as ‘the literal fulfilment of certain prophecies in scripture’. 51 The knights were doing the work of God, as the title selected by Guibert

in Constructing kingship
The body politics
Irene O'Daly

outward self designates, but the mind of each man which is that man.’ The doctors of the Church, Augustine and others, agreed. If anyone doubts this, read Scriptures, which ascribe to the soul a certain rulership over the person, and compare the body to an inn or garment. 102 If the soul is the defining organ of the self, per this account, where is it situated in the body? In the Metalogicon , John implies that the rational part of the soul is situated in the head, the seat of all senses. Just as the head is ‘ in arce rei publicae ’, reason

in John of Salisbury and the medieval Roman renaissance
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The cooperative model of the polity
Irene O'Daly

John’s mind when he referred to ‘books of offices’. This text, strongly dependent on Cicero’s De officiis , offers a discussion of two important aspects of the theory of officia , namely a distinction between ‘perfect’ and ‘middle’ duties and an account of the relationship between the exercise of appropriate duties and mechanisms of societal bonding. Furthermore, Ambrose provides a rationale for the consideration of officia by Christian thinkers, referring to the officium of Zacharias the priest, as described in Scripture. 55 Ambrose, drawing on Cicero

in John of Salisbury and the medieval Roman renaissance
Abstract only
Irene O'Daly

volition, without the aid of God’s grace. Even if the passions were to be ‘turned to the use of justice’, they would still be dependent on the mercy of God. He concludes by stating that ‘Following Scripture, the initium of wisdom and the finis of humility is fear of God.’ 95 John’s denial of the validity of the Stoic position, unlike Augustine’s, does not rest on a critique of its coherence but on the fact that the Stoics have a misplaced faith in their own capacities. Fear of losing riches, or even of death, does not provide a sound basis for the Stoic to make a

in John of Salisbury and the medieval Roman renaissance
Priests as neighbours in early medieval local societies
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

based on a Latin biblical text. 19 The sermon presents a peculiar combination of Latin, Romance and tironian notes (a system of shorthand inherited from the Roman world) for both languages. Scholars disagree as to whether this unusual linguistic mixture should be interpreted as a preacher’s working notes or the record of an actual sermon which could be repeated throughout the liturgical year on Rogation days; 20 either case would provide unique evidence of the ways in which a preacher could move from the Latin scriptures to a vernacular explanation of the biblical

in Neighbours and strangers