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The iconography of water in painting and photography
Vybarr Cregan-Reid

3961 Discovering Gilgamesh.qxd:Layout 1 24/6/13 12:49 Page 73 2 Capturing time: the iconography of water in painting and photography It is like trying to paint a soul.1 (Ruskin, on water in Modern Painters) T he plurality of Victorian ideas or beliefs about time is ably represented in the visual arts of the period. The ideological productivity of Victorian ideas concerning temporality came in part from a sort of dynamic energy; energy derived from their sheer difference to that which had preceded them. The vision of the distant past that circulated most

in Discovering Gilgamesh
Open Access (free)
Keeping up appearances
Kinneret Lahad

8 Time work: keeping up appearances Over the years that I have researched Israeli internet portals, I have detected a repetitive, periodical movement. As holidays like Rosh Hashana ( Jewish New Year’s Eve) and Passover, or widely commemorated romantic celebrations like Valentine’s Day approach, Israeli websites begin to publish a range of columns, written by and about single women, discussing their fears of being—and appearing to be—on their own over the holidays. This phenomenon is not unique to Israeli society, of course. One can easily find any number of

in A table for one
Jacqueline Furby

This essay deals with the temporality of film through an examination of narrative, structure and image in Sam Mendes’ film American Beauty (2000), referring to both Gilles Deleuze and Henri Bergson‘s work on time. I argue that the repetition of formal elements (images, settings, colours, shapes, and textures) creates a kind of internal rhyme that is suggested appeals to human aesthetic rhythmic sensibilities and invites the spectators imaginative interplay. This temporal pattern speaks of a particularly human rhythmic design, and provides an escape from the ‘standardised, context free, homogeneous’ clock time ‘that structures and times our daily lives’.

Film Studies
Jerome de Groot

This article considers the childrens writer Alison Uttley, and, particularly, her engagements with debates regarding science and philosophy. Uttley is a well-known childrens author, most famous for writing the Little Grey Rabbit series (1929–75), but very little critical attention has been paid to her. She is also an important alumna of the University of Manchester, the second woman to graduate in Physics (1907). In particular, the article looks at her novel A Traveller in Time through the lens of her thinking on time, ethics, history and science. The article draws on manuscripts in the collection of the John Rylands Library to argue that Uttley‘s version of history and time-travel was deeply indebted to her scientific education and her friendship with the Australian philosopher Samuel Alexander.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
The politics of hope
Author: Sarah Daynes

On the basis of a body of reggae songs from the 1970s and late 1990s, this book offers a sociological analysis of memory, hope and redemption in reggae music. From Dennis Brown to Sizzla, the way in which reggae music constructs a musical, religious and socio-political memory in rupture with dominant models is illustrated by the lyrics themselves. How is the past remembered in the present? How does remembering the past allow for imagining the future? How does collective memory participate in the historical grounding of collective identity? What is the relationship between tradition and revolution, between the recollection of the past and the imagination of the future, between passivity and action? Ultimately, this case study of ‘memory at work’ opens up on a theoretical problem: the conceptualisation of time and its relationship with memory.

Open Access (free)
James Baldwin and Malcolm X
Mikko Tuhkanen

Taking its cue from recent scholarly work on the concept of time in African American literature, this essay argues that, while both James Baldwin and Malcolm X refuse gradualism and insist on “the now” as the moment of civil rights’ fulfillment, Baldwin also remains troubled by the narrowness assumed by a life, politics, or ethics limited to the present moment. In his engagement with Malcolm’s life and legacy—most notably in One Day, When I Was Lost, his screen adaptation of Malcolm’s autobiography—he works toward a temporal mode that would be both punctual and expansive. What he proposes as the operative time of chronoethics is an “untimely now”: he seeks to replace Malcolm’s unyielding punctuality with a different nowness, one that rejects both calls for “patience,” endemic to any politics that rests on the Enlightenment notion of “perfectibility,” and the breathless urgency that prevents the subject from seeing anything beyond the oppressive system he wants overthrown. Both thinkers find the promise of such untimeliness in their sojourns beyond the United States.

James Baldwin Review
Ritual, routine and resistance in the British Empire
Author: Giordano Nanni

Much of the world today is governed by the clock. The project to incorporate the globe within a matrix of hours, minutes and seconds demands recognition as one of the most significant manifestations of Europe's universalising will. This book is an examination of the ways that western-European and specifically British concepts and rituals of time were imposed on other cultures as a fundamental component of colonisation during the nineteenth century. It explores the intimate relationship between the colonisation of time and space in two British settler-colonies and its instrumental role in the exportation of Christianity, capitalism and modernity. Just as the history of colonialism is often written without much reference to time, the history of time is frequently narrated without due reference to colonialism. Analysing colonial constructions of 'Aboriginal time', the book talks about pre-colonial zodiacs that have been said to demonstrate an encyclopedic oral knowledge of the night sky. Temporal control was part of everyday life during the process of colonization. Discipline and the control of human movements were channelled in a temporal as well as a spatial manner. In the colony of Victoria, missions and reserves sought to confine Aboriginal people within an unseen matrix of temporal control, imposing curfews and restrictions which interrupted the regular flow of pre-colonial patterns, rituals and calendars. Christianity had brought civilised conceptions of time to the Xhosa. Reports of Sabbath observance were treated by Britain's humanitarians as official evidence of missionary success in planting the seeds of Christianity, commerce and civilization.

Open Access (free)
Photography and Social Change in James Baldwin’s America
Makeda Best

This essay explores an exhibition at the Harvard Art Museums, installed in the fall of 2018, entitled Time is Now: Photography and Social Change in James Baldwin’s America.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Borders, ticking clocks and timelessness among temporary labour migrants in Israel
Robin A. Harper and Hani Zubida

5 Living on borrowed time: borders, ticking clocks and timelessness among temporary labour migrants in Israel Robin A. Harper and Hani Zubida ‘It’s like clockwork’, the saying goes, meaning that things are orderly, linear, dependable, and based on a universally shared, knowable concept of time. Standardisation facilitates communication, facilitates order and spurs development (Anderson 1991; Crosby 1997). Shared temporal references are a fundamental concept of social life (Sorokin 1943; Zerubavel 1982). Time is an orientation opportunity, allowing individuals

in Migrating borders and moving times
Open Access (free)
Diversification and the rise of fragmented time systems
Iain Campbell

6 Working-time flexibility: diversification and fragmented time systems Working-time flexibility: diversification and the rise of fragmented time systems Iain Campbell Despite a lack of consensus concerning its meaning and measurement, labour market flexibility has been central to employment research and policy for at least three decades. Much of the impetus for its persistence comes from the stubborn push by neoliberal policy-makers, under the banner of flexibility, for deeper market liberalisation and the elimination of labour market rigidities. Even after

in Making work more equal