planned interview length will be) of dummy questions.
When rehearsing the wrap, rehearse the final 30 seconds of the programme, again using a dummy final question to each guest.
What this system does is to make sure that everything is properly coordinated and that all the elements work, including credit and name captions, if you are using them. All interviews should be conducted as-directed sequences. The Director, VisionMixer and Camera Operators will react to the discussion as it progresses. It therefore cannot be fully rehearsed.
Rehearsing the shots
in the UK rely, in whole or in part, on multi-camera shoots.
It is possible to generate complete sequences or whole programmes in a single pass. This is not the same as recording sequences on two or more cameras running independently and then editing the recordings in post-production; the level of co-ordination is different. The necessary elements in multi-camera production are:
A visionmixer (switcher) for selecting the images to be recorded or transmitted. There is usually one person (VisionMixer or Switcher) actually doing the picture selection, though
the visionmixer or switcher, for instance;
money and how much time you have, how many cameras there are and so on;
the creativity of you and the rest of the team;
the strongest and clearest way you can find to put across the heart of the piece;
fashion: what’s in and what’s not (the influence here may be subconscious); and
received wisdom – the conventions developed over the past century or more, which include dealing with the passage of time, montages, framing and handling sound (leading incoming sound before a change of shot, for instance).
There is more to it than that: factors like the positioning of the cameras, the framing of shots, the angles, the cutting points and the cutting rate can make the audience feel more (or less) involved with what is going on. On well-written and directed studio dramas, I have often felt that the camera and sound crews, the VisionMixer and the Director as well as the actors are all taking part in the same performance, rather than merely observing. I’ll come back to drama later.
This book focuses on multi-camera video content suitable for
allowed an edit for the start of that sentence, I’d suggest going back at least as far as, ‘It could be the right thing’. While grammatically correct, ‘This, though. . .’ is really the middle of the thought, not the start of it. Allowing the extra few seconds will make performance and the edit much easier!
At the start of a retake or a pick-up, the shot on screen should be the first that is actually needed, not the outgoing picture. If you try giving the outgoing shot as well, the edit will only work if the VisionMixer’s (Switcher’s) reactions are identical to
necessary to get the best shot. With several cameras to deal with, there is always the challenge of keeping them out of each others’ shots, so multi-camera shooting frequently requires a compromise over camera position.
Though editing inevitably took longer on single-camera projects, the Editor and Director had far more choice and flexibility in creating the movie. They were not stuck with the VisionMixer’s ‘edit’, which depended, in part, on his or her own reaction time. It is certainly easier, for instance, to change an actor’s performance by careful editing using
Martin, 1964: 28–9)
The montage sequence in The Middle Men may have been one of the
ﬁrst attempts to incorporate a form of Eisensteinian montage into television drama – Kennedy Martin also acknowledged the inﬂuence of
Eisenstein’s montage theories in ‘Nats Go Home’ – but to attempt to
achieve this in a live studio drama illustrates the aesthetic ambition of
the production. Whether the sequence was actually realised on the day
of transmission is a matter for conjecture. It is possible that during the
course of the live broadcast the camera operators and visionmixer
crew, and the tendency for the visionmixer to
cut between shots on actors’ delivery of their lines –something
that went again Teague’s directorial instincts:
For me, it’s about: feel that emotion –go when you want to know
what the person’s saying –and this goes against everything that
these people have been trained [in] … So I’m trying to do this in
… forty-eight hours, trying to convince these people: ‘It’s going to
work, it’s going to work.’ And I tell you it was an uphill struggle. It
really was, purely because they were, like: ‘But this is the way we
essence, the recorded tape was played back. At the right moment, the new action was cued and the VisionMixer would cut from the source tape to the studio live-action and this would record over the tail of the outgoing recording. Even with audible cues on the tapes, this system required a lot of skill to work properly. Editec, from Ampex, who were then a major supplier of videotape equipment, was also the system by which the 2″ quadruplex tapes could be edited electronically.
Alternatively, as the BBC invariably recorded onto two video machines, in case of faults, one
John Izod, Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan, and Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard
film cost a lot in the
He did not want to use the standard television
close-up technique which results in most close-ups in any
confrontation between characters being filmed three-quarter face in
angled shots and instantly edited by the vision-mixer.
Anderson’s full-face close-ups inevitably meant that the