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Andrew Rabin

. This text, to which the manuscript gives the title Concerning Sanctuary and Protection, survives only in London, British Library, Cotton Nero A.i. Although paired in the manuscript with a selection of similarly-themed clauses from VIII Æthelred, Sanctuary ’s nostalgia for an idealised legal past, interest in social mobility, and praise for the ‘wise

in The political writings of Archbishop Wulfstan of York
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Gervase Rosser

–307. 7 C. M. Barron and A. Sutton (eds), Medieval London Widows 1300–1500 , London, 1994 ; M. K. McIntosh, ‘The benefits and drawbacks of femme sole status in England, 1300–1630’, Journal of British Studies , XLIV, 2005, pp. 410–38; B. A. Hanawalt, The Wealth of Wives: Women, Law, and Economy in Late Medieval London , Oxford, 2007, esp. p

in Towns in medieval England
T. J. H. McCarthy

–16. 173 Cf. Ibid . 7.21, p. 516. 174 The tomb was destroyed by fire in 1808. A seventeenth-century cutaway drawing is extant: Vicenzo Favi, Relatione del viaggio di Gerusalemme , MS London, British Library, Add. 33566, fol. 90r; reproduced in Hallam (1989) , p. 107

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
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Stephen Penn

’s Death , translated by Mary F. Rousseau (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1968), p. 59. 61 Manichaeism, which originated with the Persian Gnostic theologian Mani in the second half of the third century CE , posited two Gods, one good and the other evil. Mani’s ideas influenced Augustine, who wrote in some detail about them before finally rejecting them. Pelagianism, named after the British or possibly Irish theologian Pelagius (fl. early fifth century CE ), established the principle that any individual could make progress towards

in John Wyclif
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Thirteenth-century exempla from the British Isles

Exempla, the stories with which preachers enlivened their sermons and impressed salutary moral lessons on their hearers, have long been appreciated as a source of key importance for medieval history. They played an important part in popular preaching and yet, for all the work being published on preaching and on the mendicant orders more generally, little of the abundant primary material is available in English translation. This book presents translation material from two collections of exempla assembled in the British Isles in the last quarter of the thirteenth century. One, the Liber Exemplorum (LE), was compiled by an English Franciscan working in Ireland. The other, probably the work of an English Dominican based in Cambridge (DC), is represented by fifty-two stories, about one-sixth of the total. These two collections are important because they are among the earliest to survive from the British Isles. Their short, pithy narratives are not limited to matters of Church doctrine and practice, but touch on a wide range of more mundane matters and provide vivid snapshots of medieval life in the broadest sense. The first part of the collection is chiefly devoted to Christ and the Virgin, the Mass and the saving power of the Cross. The second part has exempla on a wide variety of doctrinal, moral and other topics. These include the vices, the virtues, the sacraments and church practice, and the sins and other failings thought to beset particular professions or groups.

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From 1348 to 1350 Europe was devastated by an epidemic that left between a third and one half of the population dead. This book traces, through contemporary writings, the calamitous impact of the Black Death in Europe, with a particular emphasis on its spread across England from 1348 to 1349. It charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effect on the late-medieval economy. Focusing on England, an exceptionally well documented region, the book then offers a wide range of evidence for the plague's variegated repercussions on the economy and, no less complex, on social and religious conduct. It is concerned with the British experience of plague in the fourteenth century. Students of intellectual history will find a wealth of pseudo-scientific explanations of the plague ranging from astrological conjunctions, through earthquakes releasing toxic vapours, to well poisoning by Jews. From narrative accounts, often of heartrending immediacy, the book further proceeds to a variety of contemporary responses, drawn from many parts of Christian Europe. It then explains contemporary claims that the plague had been caused by human agency. The book attempts to explain the plague, which was universally regarded as an expression of divine vengeance for the sins of humankind.

This book presents histories and chronicles written by the Normans themselves, or written by those whom they conquered, or written by contemporaries elsewhere in Europe who observed their actions from afar. It covers the process of assimilation and amalgamation between Scandinavians and Franks and the emergence of Normandy. The swift association of the Scandinavian counts of Rouen with their Frankish noble neighbours is indicative of their wish to settle and root in western France. The book illustrates the internal organisation of the principality with a variety of source material from chronicles, miracle stories and charters. It then presents material from the main chronicle sources for the history of the Norman invasion and settlement of England, supplemented with some poetry. It includes the Normans' involvement in the Mediterranean, in Italy, and to a lesser extent in Byzantium, Spain and the Holy Land. From Normandy they set out later to conquer southern Italy and the greater part of Britain and some established themselves elsewhere in Europe. The book concerns the debate about to what extent the Norman expansion into the Mediterranean was part of an exclusively Norman experience.

Paul Fouracre
Richard A. Gerberding

, Foillan, came as a fugitive from East Anglia to take over Fursey’s leadership, something which most likely happened some time during 650 when the actions of Penda could have driven Foillan from Britain. 19 He was at first welcomed by Erchinoald but then, shortly thereafter, as the Additamentum Nivialense tells us, the mayor expelled the Irishman and his followers. 20 Erchinoald’s relationship

in Late Merovingian France
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David Jones

Exempla are plausible stories, drawn from literary sources or from life, which are used to seize the attention of a preacher’s audience and illustrate a moral or theological point, usually by delivering a salutary lesson. 1 This volume presents in translation material from two collections of exempla assembled in the British Isles in the last quarter of the thirteenth

in Friars’ Tales
Martin Heale

late medieval England. They generally offered the recipient the same spiritual benefits on death as a member of the community – although some more important benefactors might be granted fuller forms of commemoration [cf. 35 ] – and seem to have attracted considerable interest among the laity. Translated from British Library, Royal 12 E xiv, fos 37–37v (Latin). 22

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535