Loyalty and protest in Māori politics in nineteenth-century New Zealand
, pitting the political economy
of Edward Gibbon Wakefield against the evangelical humanitarianism
of the New Zealand missions of the ChurchMissionarySociety (CMS)
and the Wesleyans. 5 The missionary societies demanded
that Māori be left alone, free to become Christianised and
‘civilised’ while maintaining their sovereign
independence. Anything else, they argued, would threaten
the Edinburgh (Scottish) and Glasgow Missionary Societies in 1796 and the ChurchMissionarySociety in 1799. These organisations would ultimately dispatch thousands of missionaries
across the globe, initially unschooled, pious and apostolic; increasingly educated,
professional and socially oriented. Mission activity crept into the four corners of the
globe, impacting profoundly on indigenous peoples, the domestic social and cultural history
of Britain itself, and on the broader history of Britain’s global century
Constructing imperial identity through Liverpool petition struggles
’s charter restrictions that denied non-Anglican missionaries the right
to preach on the sub-continent. In 1813, Liverpool supporters of the Baptist
and the ChurchMissionarySocieties petitioned along with 900 other groups
nationwide. However, this religious activism was not wholly beneficial to the
Liverpool-led provincial coalition. Most missionary associations thought the
Company would be a more effective moral reformer than provincial merchants.38
Not all in Liverpool were prepared to debate about sugar duties on ‘purely mercantile grounds’.39 In 1823, a bold
R. Phillips, ‘ Imperialism and the regulation of sexuality: colonial legislation on contagious diseases
and ages of consent ’, Journal of Historical Geography , 28:3 ( 2002 ), 339–362.
ChurchMissionarySociety (CMS), ChurchMissionarySociety’s
African Missions: Sierra Leone , 2nd edn (London: CMS, 1899 ).
Leone Church Times (17 February 17 1886), p. 4.
Confronting the legacies of empire, disability and the
deaf community, claiming to have always ‘abominated’ sign language, which he considered beneath him.
Social class as well as disability shaped Kitto's early experiences. He came from a family deeply impoverished due to his father's alcoholism, and he spent his childhood and adolescence in and out of workhouses.
Kitto's first engagement with the British Empire came from his role as a missionary for the evangelical ChurchMissionarySociety (CMS), under whose auspices he travelled to Malta in June
Bible, not an American Arabic Bible, and for a while they thought they had found the man to make one. This was the Anglican W. H. T. Gairdner (1873–1928), of the ChurchMissionarySociety in Egypt, who admitted that he thought of the Van Dyck Bible as ‘incomprehensible or inelegant’ in parts.
Even today, historians of Protestantism recognise Gairdner as a chronicler of the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910, which propelled the Protestant ecumenical movement and anticipated the World Council of
Naval officers’ experiences of slave-trade suppression
Commentary’. Thomas Scott, a founder of the ChurchMissionarySociety, condemned virtually all forms of contemporary slavery.
Buckle was a great admirer: ‘How truly scriptural, spiritual and
practical is Scott, how opposed to the mere nominal Christian.’ 48 Among Buckle’s personal
papers is an engraving of the abolitionist Granville Sharp and a
handwritten copy of the inscription on Sharp’s memorial tablet in
Aid and the ChurchMissionarySociety,
both of which helped to stimulate action in the ﬁeld of foreign aid, the
Protestant churches played an important role in shaping Irish attitudes
to the developing world.
The combination of their activities, Catholic and Protestant, informed
Irish perceptions of Africa, however vague and unrelated to social and
political boundaries (see Chapter 1). But on occasion they also had
a more direct impact. Irish clergymen (for those with inﬂuence were
mainly men), for example, played a particularly important role in stimulating the