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Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

one. The hidden transcript runs through Mai Mai militias, justifications for tax evasion and in the undertaking of a myriad of creative survival strategies. Underlying these tactics is a process of de-legitimisation, of advancing alternative agendas and raising political aspirations. These discourses and the political alternatives embedded within them are realised not just in mechanisms of critique and the voicing of aspirations, but in the processes of denial and mitigation undertaken for navigating a context of violence and poverty. 124 Claims to authority and

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

also take the form of subversion, including redefining the ideals 183 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making embedded in the peacebuilding discourse, using armed groups to protect oneself or mitigating the dominating effects of military rule through negotiation and creative survival. The Scottian claim-regarding practices address elite claims directly. The Certeaunian ‘self-regarding’ practices identify acts that deny or mitigate elite claims indirectly. These acts have the self (individual or collective) at the centre of the action. By using or

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

to contain the Soviet Union away from the Mediterranean and Western Europe. Jennings’s and Wallace’s creative choices chime with the wider ideological construct of the time that linked the notions of universalism and internationalism with Greece, a country that in post-Enlightenment Europe stood for the source of such aspirations. For example, UNESCO, upon its establishment in 1945, had adopted a

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Toby Fricker

creative and visual way to tell the story. The communications products to accompany the new reports were produced to target media outlets and conform to the known dispositions of news organisations. 76 A process that Natalie Fenton refers to as ‘“news cloning” that mimics, or indeed matches, the requirements of mainstream news agendas’, but does not mean that aid agencies ‘have managed to change news

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Cultural and economic relations between the British film industry and Hollywood
Jonathan Stubbs

British Empire proved to be particularly popular in the United States, partly due to their incorporation of genre conventions from the Western. In a 1936 review of The Charge of the Light Brigade – which creatively relocated Tennyson’s poem to India’s northwest frontier – the critic of the New York Times declared, ‘England need have no fear of its empire so long as Hollywood insists on being the Kipling of the Pacific. The film city’s pious regard for the sacrosanct bearers of the white man’s burden continues to be one of the most amusing manifestations of Hollywood

in Culture matters
George Washington and Anglo-American memory diplomacy, c.1890–1925
Sam Edwards

of Englishmen against a usurping – and German – monarchy. 41 In turn, such ideas enabled a certain view of the colonial leadership. For if the cause was legitimate and the actions identifiably ‘English’ then it required little initiative or invention to see the Revolution’s leader – George Washington – as something akin to an eighteenth-century English ‘baron’ contesting the restrictions imposed by a foreign king. Certain facts of Washington’s life aided this work of creative interpretation. He was a Virginian planter rather than a New England radical and, as such

in Culture matters
Thomas C. Mills

to harness youthful energies to liberate American society from the alleged oppression of the capitalist system and create a truly participatory democracy that would allow individuals to realize their creative potential. 40 Politically aware folk artists like Pete Seeger, and most prominently Bob Dylan, provided the soundtrack for the New Left. In comparison to Dylan’s Freewheelin’ album of the previous year – which featured ‘protest songs’ targeting racial segregation and the arms industry – the Beatles’ output in 1964 seemed positively anodyne. Almost the

in Culture matters
Open Access (free)
Resistance and the liberal peace: a missing link
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

by rural communities to provide security; and creative survival practices that range from tax evasion to land reappropriation and the provision of all sorts of social services. Scott has often been criticised on the grounds that intentions are ungraspable, that resistance acts are too ambiguous and ambivalent to serve as a category of analysis and that he excessively simplifies social reality (Hibou 2011a: Ch. 1; Mbembe 2001: 103–8; Ortner 1995; Weaver Shipley 2010: 666). In response to these critiques, which have also concluded that resistance does not exist or is

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

resonates with Africanist critiques seen above (Hibou 2011a; Mbembe 2001: Ch. 3; Mbembe in Weaver Shipley 2010: 666). Because resistance, and especially its intentions, is ambiguous, Ortner proposes to 64 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance account for the multiple ways in which practices can be ‘creative and transformative’, yet be the result of contradictory and mixed intentions (1995: 190–1). By this account, intentions may not be central and may provide a richer account of other aspects in everyday human relations, but doing away with intention undermines

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
The United States Peace Corps in the early 1960s
Agnieszka Sobocinska

recruitment and publicity material, assuring Shriver that applicants were fit for the Peace Corps because they were ‘serious, intelligent, attractive, tactful and durable’. 63 Many letters spoke to hours of thought and creative effort. Dozens of correspondents enclosed insignia, symbols and badges that they had designed for the Peace Corps. 64 One of Senator Henry M. Jackson’s Washington State constituents

in Global humanitarianism and media culture