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Francoist legacy and transition to democracy
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

in the subsequent decades continues to be at the centre of heated and polarised political debates. The long-running debates over Franco's resting place and the surge in nostalgia for the aesthetics and politics of the Franco regime do epitomise how deep the Spanish divide about the past lies and how emotionally and politically charged the history of the Transition remains. 16 Spain is experiencing a critical reassessment of the drivers in its democracy, and the perception of the Transition as an idealised and

in Counter-terror by proxy
continuity, innovation and renewal
Paul Kennedy

5 The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party: continuity, innovation and renewal Paul Kennedy The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español – PSOE) was founded in Madrid in 1879. It was the largest party on the left during the Second Republic (1931–36), and provided the Republic with two prime ministers during the Spanish Civil War, Francisco Largo Caballero (1936–37) and Juan Negrín (1937–39). Brutally repressed by the Franco regime (1939–75), the PSOE almost disappeared as a significant political force within Spain. Nevertheless, under the

in In search of social democracy
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Gender, nationalism and memory
Carrie Hamilton

common among women whose partners or male relatives had been killed, imprisoned or exiled. Yet, whether the narrators embraced feminism as a political project or not, their interpretations of their life histories and their roles in the radical nationalist movement were fundamentally shaped by an awareness of the changes in gender roles and relations from their youth during the Franco regime to the time of the interviews thirty or forty years later. They made frequent references to the lack of feminist consciousness in the 1960s and 1970s as compared to the 1990s

in Women and ETA
Carrie Hamilton

similarity between these two forms of Catholic and nationalist motherhood, and of gender relations generally, undermines any simplistic view of Basque families as spaces that were ‘protected’ from the Franco state, or that represented unequivocal resistance to Francoism. In the area of gender relations in particular, middle-class Basque nationalist families to a large extent followed, rather than challenged, dominant ideology. This is not to say that Basque women from nationalist families supported the Franco regime any more than men did, or that they did not feel the

in Women and ETA
Carrie Hamilton

rest of Spain, the sexual politics of the Franco regime. As Frances Lannon writes of the Church’s reforms in the 1960s: [T]he Church was able to be much more radical in politics and questions of social justice, that primarily challenged the state and interest groups in Spanish society, than in matters concerning lay life and sexuality which threatened more nearly its own internal organization and values.11 The preservation of Basque tradition had long been associated with enforcing gender norms. During the early years of the Second Republic, when Church leaders all

in Women and ETA
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Arrest and prison
Carrie Hamilton

Madrid, where many female political prisoners were held during the final years of the Franco regime: It was really hard for us . . . The lawyers seldom came to see us. It was obvious that we were girls. And . . . in the beginning I was alone, completely alone in prison, there wasn’t a single Basque prisoner. I was alone for a long time. But later there were people from the PCE, from the Communist Party. And then people from ETA came in, with lighter sentences than us . . . At some point I was with groups of fifteen Basque prisoners. They [the lawyers] came, but very

in Women and ETA
Sarah Wright

’s present. But perhaps we also retain traces of Hirsch’s ‘not memories’, communicated in ‘flashes of imagery’ and ‘broken refrains’ transmitted through ‘the language of the body’ which are ‘precisely the stuff of postmemory’ (Hirsch, 2008: 109). The ellipses in the narrative give rise to a sense of ‘broken refrains’, stitched together rather like Memory and the child witness 97 the eponymous monster built by Dr Frankenstein. Here, too, Ana absorbs the horrors of the past (the Spanish Civil War and the represssiveness of the Franco regime) rather like a fairy tale and

in The child in Spanish cinema
Duncan Wheeler

to package the violence and distortions of the Spanish experience in a style both visually interesting to a foreign audience and, more importantly, permissible by the Franco regime’. 10 In a letter dated 10 September 1963, Foreign Minister Fernando Castiella forwarded to Garrigues correspondence received from the Spanish ambassador in Italy about a screening of the film El verdugo ( The Executioner ) (Luis García Berlanga, 1963) with the following cover note: He mandado hacer reproducciones, en

in Following Franco
the horror genre and contemporary Spanish cinema
Andrew Willis

part of this aim, renaming it The Bronston Studios. Due to the politics of the time it is unlikely that this could have happened without the support of key elements in the Franco regime. As Peter Besas has observed, The government was delighted to see the American building a miniature Hollywood in Madrid, providing employment

in Contemporary Spanish cinema and genre
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Diana Cullell

Spanish Politics, Milton Park: Routledge. Mainer, J. C. (Ed.) 1999. En el último tercio del siglo 1968–1998. Antología consultada de la poesía española, Madrid: Visor. Malia, J. 2012. Poetas. Primera antología de poesía con matemáticas, Madrid: Amargord. Mangen, S. P. 2001. Spanish Society after Franco: Regime, Transition and the Welfare State, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Maqueda Cuenca, E. 2001. ‘La poesía de la experiencia. Orígenes y teoría’ in Salvador Montesa, Poetas en el 2000: Modernidad y transvanguardia, Málaga: Publicaciones del Congreso de Literatura

in Spanish contemporary poetry