establishment of a new social practice that would have hitherto been unknown in GaelicIreland. 28 The most prominent house on
the street is a three-storey house with a high gable-end facing the viewer. The sides of the
gable-end are decorated with crow-stepping, a form of architectural embellishment very much
associated with Scottish building design in the period, which can be seen in a number of
buildings in Ulster and even in the midlands. 29 In the drawing, the ground floor level of the house appears to have
disturbers of the common wealthe’. 30 His letter to the ‘well
disposed reader’ outlines the topic of his poem (the woodkern, or ‘the vipers
of the saide land’) but praises the virtue of his ‘loving Countriemen of
Englande’. 31 His sentiments
and his named audiences illustrate the intricacy of his textual task. As Knapp notes, the
complex responses of the situation in Ireland ‘reveal a tender affection for the
island, while at the same time calling for a brutal response to the Gaelic-Irish
powers’. 32 These
Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Books owned by members of
Old English and GaelicIrish families in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries’, in
Michael Potterton and Thomas Herron (eds), Dublin and the Pale in the Renaissance,
c.1540–1640 (Dublin, 2011), pp. 286–8.
36 Raymond Gillespie, ‘The social thought of Richard Bellings’, in Micheál Ó Siochrú (ed.),
Kingdoms in crisis: Ireland in the 1640s (Dublin, 2001), pp. 212–28. See also Coolahan’s
chapter in this volume.
GRIBBEN 9781526113245 PRINT.indd 47
fitfully.37 The response to older works
litmus test for reciprocal admiration of ‘opposing’ groups
was Ware’s relationship with key figures in GaelicIreland. The existence
of these important nationwide contacts has already been established,
but his association with the distinguished Gaelic scholar Dubhaltach
Mac Fhirbhisigh from Sligo merits particular attention. After returning to Dublin following the collapse of the Cromwellian regime, Ware
immediately immersed himself in Irish sources in an effort to complete
various projects which had been interrupted during the Interregnum.
62 Cunningham and Gillespie
perspectives that draw on different ways of imagining space. 24 Christopher Highley associates the figure of Merlin with ‘Spenser’s claims about the status of the artist and his creations’ but also, owing to his peripheral geopolitical location, with Spenser’s experiences of GaelicIreland. 25 For my purposes, Merlin, as might be thought fitting for a legendary figure of enchantment, appears to have feet placed in several overlapping worlds. His located presence connects spatial control with the art of prophecy.
Although Britomart travels
with the fact that the two
‘vipers’ Derricke singles out as examples are from different regions (not to
mention members of well-educated GaelicIrish elites rather than savage
bog-dwellers), and at odds with the contents of the poem itself. In ‘The Image of
Irelande’ the supposed majority of faithful Irish subjects do not figure at all, and
several passages appear to suggest that the speaker is in fact referring to the Irish in
general. The poem begins with ‘the aucthour’ taking a panoramic view of
-Saxon England (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012).
18 Patrick Wormald, ‘Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Kingship: Some Further Thoughts’, in Sources of Anglo-Saxon Culture , ed. Paul Szarmach (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1986), pp. 151–83; Bart Jaski, Early Irish Kingship and Succession (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000); Katherine Simms, From Kings to Warlords: The Changing Political Structure of GaelicIreland in the Later Middle Ages (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1987).
19 eDIL , s.v. febas . See Jaski’s overview of febas , which he describes as
The cartographic consciousness of Irish gothic fiction
temporary, albeit involuntary, suspension of his identity, 87 he nevertheless represents, like Glorvina and Grace Nugent, the dispossession and political allegiances of GaelicIreland. 88 This is apparent in the associations conjured by his various names. ‘Ferdinand Sylvester’ recalls the eighteenth-century antiquarian, Sylvester O’Halloran (1728–1807), while ‘Netterville’ raises the spectre of the recusant John Netterville, 2nd Viscount Netterville of Dowth (d. 1659), and his father, both of whom were implicated in the 1641 Rebellion and consequently lost both title
Historical Studies 31:123 (May, 1999), pp. 305–27.
Greer Ramsey, ‘A Breath of Fresh Air: Rectal Music in GaelicIreland’, Archaeology Ireland 16:1 (Spring, 2002), pp. 22–3; Ann
Buckley, ‘Representations of Musicians in John Derricke’s ‘The Image
of Irelande’ (1581)’, in Vjera Katalinić and Zdravko
Blažeković (ed.), Glazba, Riječi i Slike: Svečani Zbornik za
Koraljku Kos/Music, Words, and Images: Essays in Honour of Koraljka Kos (Zagreb:
Croatian Musicological Society, 1999
Raleigh’s ‘Ocean to Scinthia’, Spenser’s ‘Colin Clouts Come Home Againe’ and The Faerie Queene IV.vii in colonial context
102 Quinn, Raleigh, 155; on Raleigh’s Irish smelting industry, see Canny, ‘Raleigh’s’, 95.
103 Kenneth Nicholls, ‘Woodland Cover in Pre-Modern Ireland’, in GaelicIreland: Land,
Lordship and Settlement c.1250–c.1650, ed. Patrick J. Duffy, David Edwards, and Elizabeth Fitzpatrick (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001), 181–206: 199.
speaker. Summer otium turns forest of Error redolent of his colonial situation in Spenser’s poetry.104
A second material fixation of the poem is terrestrial and mineral