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An interview with Martin Mansergh
Graham Spencer

to redress the balance of the old’. I think the American role was important. The public view that they were best buddies is more complex, and there have been a whole range of different interests on, say, Grenada, the Falklands, nuclear disarmament, and where Reagan pushed Thatcher in the direction of delivering on the Anglo-Irish Agreement after she had fallen out with FitzGerald. There was also the kind of American influence going back to Carter’s day, where economic underpinning took shape in the International Fund for

in Inside Accounts, Volume I
An interview with Sean O hUiginn
Graham Spencer

the International Fund for Ireland which flowed from the Agreement played a role not sufficiently appreciated in promoting reconciliation and cross-community co-operation at grassroots level). The impact of the outreach of President Clinton and his administration cannot be over-estimated, both in terms of laying the foundations for the Agreement and bringing it over the line. Senator Mitchell extracted the two Governments out of the hole they had dug for themselves on prior decommissioning and chaired the subsequent talks

in Inside Accounts, Volume I
An interview with Daithi O’Ceallaigh
Graham Spencer

the Anglo-Irish Agreement when we had the ‘Out, out, out’ of Mrs Thatcher. President Reagan met Thatcher the following January and he raised the matter with her. Reagan said he regarded both FitzGerald and Thatcher as his friends and because of that he emphasised how important it was for him that each be friendly to the other. After the Agreement the Americans were helpful in providing considerable resources for the International Fund for Ireland, which was intended to try and put money into areas that had been bereft of

in Inside Accounts, Volume I
An interview with Wally Kirwan
Graham Spencer

September of every second year, bringing together all the key people who were dealing with the Northern Ireland on the British side with the Irish side, Army officers, the police and a good range of people from the British Civil Service and the British establishment. The International Fund for Ireland was set up after the Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985 and was about giving grants to different reconciliation

in Inside Accounts, Volume II
Abstract only
Europeanisation breakthrough
Boyka Stefanova

logic, the EC participated in the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) established following the Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) of 15 November 1985 for the purpose of encouraging contact and reconciliation between the two communities. The annual EC contribution amounted to 15 million ecus between 1989 and 1994, 17 million from 1995 to 1999, and 15 million euros from 2000 onwards (European Commission 2006

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
The political dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

Council of Ministers and the EP formally welcomed the Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1985 and the EC paid 15 million ECUs into the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) in 1989. The EP’s support for the Anglo-Irish Agreement was important in that it lent international support and approval to home-grown efforts at resolving the conflict. It also made it extremely difficult for either Britain or Ireland to renounce the pact unilaterally (Moxon-Browne 1992: 52). The EP’s welcome for the AngloIrish Agreement also helped to maintain the agreement against sustained and intense

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Derek Birrell

tackling problems of peripherality and rurality, and Interreg II and IIIA have been major sources of funding for some 200 projects in the 2000–05 period (Magennis et al., 2006). Apart from the EU there are other major sources of international funding which have supported cross-border cooperation, particularly the International Fund for Ireland, Cooperation Ireland as well as other charitable trusts. However BDR09.indd 191 3/23/2009 4:12:50 PM 192 Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland Table 9.9 Common chapter North/South expenditure 2004 3 millions 2005

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
Sandra Buchanan

number of key lessons will now be examined in turn. International Fund for Ireland The implementation structures at the heart of the IFI have been its most valuable lesson. Its unique set-up, with an independent Board that could not be dictated to by government, with independent funding, the flexibility to draw up its own programmes and to decide on the

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development