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Constance Duncombe

Representations trigger emotions that drive the struggle for recognition and respect. How an entity is represented, or wishes to be represented, influences its actions. Desire to cultivate a certain image of the Self, to be recognised in a particular way, is driven by a feeling of disrespect that manifests as a social hurt. Such hurt fosters a preoccupation with seeking a particular form of recognition through foreign policy actions. 1 If we allow such a reading of Iran's actions to present itself alongside conventional accounts of Iranian

in Representation, recognition and respect in world politics
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Representation, recognition and possibilities for transformative change
Constance Duncombe

influence foreign policy. The objective of my book was thus to provide insight into how representations of one state by another influence foreign policymaking behaviour, with a particular emphasis on the reciprocal representations of the US and Iran. I argued that representations matter in foreign policymaking. How an actor is represented, or wishes to be represented, influences its actions. Desire to cultivate a certain image of the Self, to be recognised in a particular way, is driven by a feeling of disrespect that manifests through misrecognition

in Representation, recognition and respect in world politics
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The international congresses of architecture in Iran and the transnational search for identity
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

2 Canvassing a future: The international congresses of architecture in Iran and the transnational search for identity Introduction An important aspect of development is the flow of expertise and ideas that transforms localities. In relation to the built environment, the conduit for such flow in 1970s Iran was a series of five international congresses, organized between 1970 and 1976 by the Iranian government, of which three concerned architectural issues; the first two (Isfahan 1970, Persepolis 1974) addressed issues of development, impacts of advanced

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Representation, recognition and respect in world politics
Constance Duncombe

Iran and the United States. The case study is indicative of how representation is not only evident within state-to-state communication but also plays a significant role in recognition and identity development. Both the US and Iran utilise particular representations to understand themselves, each other and their behaviour. These have had an impact on each state's foreign policy that further destabilises the relationship between Iran and the US. This book further proposes that states respond or react to externally constructed representations of who

in Representation, recognition and respect in world politics
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Engaging nostalgia
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

1 A vital past: Engaging nostalgia ‫ ما از آسیای جنوب شرقی آن موقع جلوتر‬.‫ایران در سال‌های دهه‌های چهل و پنجاه داشت جهش می‌کرد‬ ‫ حاال چرا؟ نمیدانم‬.‫ علت عدم موفقیت ما ته نظر من این است که ما شتاب تغییرات را تحمل نکردیم‬.‫بودیم‬ ‫… ما روشنفکران آن دوره هم پرتتودیم و تحلیل درستی از جایگاه خود در جامعه و جامعه ی خودمان در‬ ‫جهان نداشتیم … ما روشنفکران جایگاه خود را ندانستیم و جامعه را خراب کردیم … باید اعتراف کنم‬ 1 !‫شرمنده‌ام که نسل ما گند زد‬ Dariush Shayegan, Iranian Indophile philosopher Introduction In the Introduction, we argued that development

Saudi and Iranian competition in the Horn of Africa
Robert Mason

Introduction This chapter charts the trajectory of Saudi and Iranian engagement and competition in the Horn of Africa (the Horn) as an extension to their intense rivalry in the Middle East. Enmity between Saudi Arabia and Iran is well documented in various texts 1 and is generally attributable to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, when Ayatollah Khomeini articulated an expansionist republican model for Iran and other parts of the Middle East, set against the status quo interests

in The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa
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Design as the mediator of development and heritage
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

Conclusion: Design as the mediator of development and heritage Introduction This book has explored some of the effects of development, which we have identified as a fundamental driver of historical change in late twentieth-century Iran. Throughout the twentieth century, but particularly during the second Pahlavi period, development constituted a raft of modernizing projects, displacements, and shifts in population composition, and changes in modes of production, all on a multitude of scales. Our point of departure has been that development unmoors traditions and

The Shahyad Arya-Mehr Tower
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

5 Forming a national image through public projects: The Shahyad Arya-Mehr Tower The monument of Shahyad Ariamehr is being built near Teheran to celebrate the 25th centenary of the foundation of the Iranian Empire, and of the Declaration of Human Rights by Cyrus the Great. As is fitting for such an occasion, it is a monument to the past – its inspiration clearly coming from traditional design. But it has another purpose concerned very much with today.1 I think one of the reasons that Persians feel so close to Shahyad Tower is that it is reminiscent of Ctesiphon

Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

their own ends.7 Yet the increasingly securitised and politicised role of religion, particularly within the context of the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran has left regimes open to criticism while state security is undermined by the ability of clerics in one state to speak to audiences in another. When domestic audiences are framed as a security threat, it is hardly surprising that some communities are perceived to have sought guidance and support from co-​ethnic or sectarian kin.8 Evoking memories of Paul Noble’s regional echo chamber, this chapter shows how the

in Houses built on sand
Raymond Hinnebusch

tribes, peoples, notably the Arabs, lacked the defined sense of territorial identity and attachment to the land associated with peasant societies. The important exceptions, those societies with substantial peasantries – Turkey, Iran and Egypt – are those where contemporary states most closely approximate national states. Aggravating the situation was the way the contemporary states system was imposed at the expense of a pre-existing cultural unity deriving from centuries of rule by extensive empires ruling in the name of the Islamic umma . Where

in The international politics of the Middle East