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The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa

the beginning of a new era of bilateral relations between the two countries in which counterterrorism would play a major role. Second, it was the start of a more serious continental counterterrorism dialogue – one that was driven by the impact of the 1998 US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. In light of these attacks, the US ramped up its counterterrorism efforts in East Africa while the Organization of African Unity (OAU, but now AU) adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Combating on Terrorism, which both defined terrorism and marked the first

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Patrick Thornberry

issues, including the rights of women,28 and, as noted, indigenous questions are now under discussion. Appropriate interconnections between the general human rights system and work on the Charter are mandated by Article 60 which provides that The Commission shall draw inspiration from international law on human rights, particularly from the provisions of various African instruments on human and peoples’ rights, the Charter of the United Nations, the Charter of the Organization of African Unity, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, other instruments adopted by the

in Indigenous peoples and human rights
Domestic politics, global linkages
Ian Taylor

elites have been among the strongest supporters of the so-­called Washington Consensus. In this sense, such leaders have been among the social forces that have facilitated liberalisation, despite veritable downsides for the average African. Central in this process has been the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). NEPAD was launched in Abuja, Nigeria, in October 2001; it arose from the mandate granted to five African heads of state (Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa) by the then Organization of African Unity (OAU) to work out a development

in The European Union in Africa
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The choice in favour of quiet diplomacy, 1978
Umberto Tulli

Angola and the ties between Cuban troops and Katangan volunteers to denounce the invasion as a Cuban–Soviet aggression. Appeals to the Organization of African Unity on this basis made little progress. While the OAU condemned the invasion, there was no concern regarding the alleged communist involvement. Similarly, American reactions were lukewarm. Realism and idealism intertwined in rejecting Mobutu’s appeal. First, Carter’s strategy for Central Africa relied on Nigeria, Zaire’s rival, as the key player in the region. Second, for an administration that had come to

in A precarious equilibrium
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

Organization of African Unity (the predecessor of the modern African Union, AU) against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (Department of Justice/FBI). Terrorism and extremism 89 to explicitly reject this label by accepting the notion that “all struggles undertaken by peoples for their full national independence …, including armed struggle, are entirely legal.”4 But even after accepting this moral and legal justification, the debate over terror tactics

in African security in the twenty-first century
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

Most of these principles are encapsulated in four crucial Charter provisions: Articles 1, 2, 55 and 56. 33 It is well known that a number of regional organisations (e.g. the Organization of American States (OAS), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Association

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

–South conflicts. The League of Arab States (Arab League) and the Organization of American States (OAS), 73 founded in 1945 and 1948 respectively, were joined by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1963 and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. Although the Cold War inescapably influenced the formation and policies of these organisations, they added a

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

ago, the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity … appealed to the international community to give full support to the United Nations peacekeeping operations in Angola, and he further added that this was the time to strengthen the United Nations presence instead of withdrawing or reducing it, if Angola is to be prevented from sliding into

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Getting sub-Saharan Africa connected (1991–2015)
Russell Southwood

The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a socio-economic development flagship programme of the African Union (AU), adopted by African leaders at the 37th Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) held in Lusaka, Zambia, in July 2001. However, it was driven by South Africa and its then president, Thabo Mbeki. 93 Author interview, John-Paul Bagiire, 7 August 2020

in Africa 2.0
Between expansionist ambitions and hegemonic constraints
Eric Lob

legacy of Rafsanjani's pragmatic active neutrality. 69 The MAJ's bilateral relations with African countries opened the door for Iran to join or play a role in multilateral organizations, including the African Union, the Organization of African Unity, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference. 70 In 2008, the African Union Commission visited Tehran to discuss expanding African–Iranian relations

in The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa