The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa
the beginning of a new era of bilateral relations between the two countries in which counterterrorism would play a major role. Second, it was the start of a more serious continental counterterrorism dialogue – one that was driven by the impact of the 1998 US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. In light of these attacks, the US ramped up its counterterrorism efforts in East Africa while the OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU, but now AU) adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Combating on Terrorism, which both defined terrorism and marked the first
issues, including the rights
of women,28 and, as noted, indigenous questions are now under discussion.
Appropriate interconnections between the general human rights system and
work on the Charter are mandated by Article 60 which provides that
The Commission shall draw inspiration from international law on human rights,
particularly from the provisions of various African instruments on human and
peoples’ rights, the Charter of the United Nations, the Charter of the OrganizationofAfricanUnity, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, other
instruments adopted by the
elites have been
among the strongest supporters of the so-called Washington Consensus.
In this sense, such leaders have been among the social forces that have
facilitated liberalisation, despite veritable downsides for the average
Central in this process has been the New Partnership for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD). NEPAD was launched in Abuja, Nigeria,
in October 2001; it arose from the mandate granted to five African
heads of state (Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa) by the
then OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU) to work out a development
Angola and the ties between Cuban troops and Katangan volunteers to denounce the invasion as a Cuban–Soviet aggression. Appeals to the OrganizationofAfricanUnity on this basis made little progress. While the OAU condemned the invasion, there was no concern regarding the alleged communist involvement. Similarly, American reactions were lukewarm. Realism and idealism intertwined in rejecting Mobutu’s appeal. First, Carter’s strategy for Central Africa relied on Nigeria, Zaire’s rival, as the key player in the region. Second, for an administration that had come to
OrganizationofAfricanUnity (the predecessor of the modern African Union, AU)
against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” (Department of Justice/FBI).
Terrorism and extremism
to explicitly reject this label by accepting the notion that “all struggles
undertaken by peoples for their full national independence …, including
armed struggle, are entirely legal.”4 But even after accepting this moral
and legal justification, the debate over terror tactics
Most of these principles are encapsulated in
four crucial Charter provisions: Articles 1, 2, 55 and 56.
It is well known that a number of regional
organisations (e.g. the Organization of American States (OAS), the
OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU), the Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Association
–South conflicts. The League of Arab
States (Arab League) and the Organization of American States
founded in 1945 and 1948 respectively, were joined by the OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU) in 1963 and the Association of South-East Asian
Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. Although the Cold War inescapably influenced
the formation and policies of these organisations, they added a
ago, the Secretary-General of the
OrganizationofAfricanUnity … appealed to the
international community to give full support to the United
Nations peacekeeping operations in Angola, and he further added
that this was the time to strengthen the United Nations presence
instead of withdrawing or reducing it, if Angola is to be
prevented from sliding into
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a socio-economic development flagship programme of the African Union (AU), adopted by African leaders at the 37th Summit of the OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU) held in Lusaka, Zambia, in July 2001. However, it was driven by South Africa and its then president, Thabo Mbeki.
Author interview, John-Paul Bagiire, 7 August 2020
Between expansionist ambitions and hegemonic constraints
legacy of Rafsanjani's pragmatic active neutrality.
The MAJ's bilateral relations with African countries opened the door for Iran to join or play a role in multilateral organizations, including the African Union, the OrganizationofAfricanUnity, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
In 2008, the African Union Commission visited Tehran to discuss expanding African–Iranian relations