account for difference among African-derived populations, in a way
that a term like Pan-Africanism could not … it forces us
to consider discourses of cultural and political linkage only through
and across difference” (Edwards, 2001 , p.
64). A key example of discourses of cultural linkages is the pre-civil
war collective self-definitions of the Afro-diaspora, which
“often treated Africa as a fallen
2.4 Crime (120–122)
2.5 Schooling (122)
2.6 Intellectual atmosphere (122–125)
3 Conclusion: reciprocity of cause and effect (125–127)
Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. 2007 . ‘Of Our Spiritual Strivings’ and ‘Of the Sons of Master and Man’. In The Souls of Black Folk. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7–14 and 111–127.
From 1897 Du Bois held an academic position at Atlanta University, from which he retired in 1944. In 1900 he helped organize the first Pan-African Conference in
Pieterson’, African Arts 40, no. 2 (2007): 52–69.
26 Ali Khangela Hlongwane, ‘Commemoration, Memory and Monuments in the Contested Language of Black Liberation: The South African Experience’ , Journal of PanAfrican Studies 2, no. 4 (2008): 135–70; Helena Pohlandt-McCormick, ‘I Saw a Nightmare …’ Doing Violence to Memory: The Soweto Uprising, June 16, 1976 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), www.gutenberg-e.org/pohlandt-mccormick/index.html.
27 Colin Bundy, ‘Survival and Resistance: Township Organisations and Non-Violent Direct Action in Twentieth