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Steven Earnshaw

Philosophy and the realist impulse: Aristotle and Plato As consistently registered in this book, there has been an ever-present realist impulse in literature and art, and the argument has been that in the nineteenth century this combined with other factors to produce the self-conscious Realist aesthetic. Among those factors philosophical and scientific ideas played a large part, although we should also note that philosophy of art prior to this period also advocated versions of realism. However, it is worth pointing out that the term often taken as synonymous

in Beginning realism
Cinematic realism, philosophical realism and film theory
Ian Aitken

which they adopt. Following this, the chapter will relate these realist traditions to two different theoretical contexts. First, cinematic realism will be placed within the context of philosophical realism, and an attempt will be made to establish the extent to which the realist film theories explored here can be defined in philosophical terms, and what the value of such an enterprise might be. Second, cinematic realism will be compared to a

in Realist film theory and cinema
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

Realism (1) Classical art was considered art by the clarity of the order that it created (an artistic order). The terms which characterised it and the practices of it were harmony, symmetry, balance, lucidity, centring, hierarchy. It was an exceptionally rational and to that degree objective (impersonal) art. These qualities were evidence of the fabricated (artistic) nature of the work and the ideal order that was created. Nature was made over to conform to these ideals recognised and accepted as beautiful as defined by a tradition. There was a potential

in Film modernism
Abstract only
Sam Rohdie

Realism (2) Between 1943 and 1950, that is during the final years of the war, occupation, the Resistance, the Allied invasion of Italy, liberation (1944), the establishment of the Republic (1948), Antonioni made eleven, relatively short, documentary films. Before that, from 1938 onwards, he had been a film critic on the local paper of his home town of Ferrara, the Corriere Padano, and then, when he moved to Rome in 1939 on the journals Cinema and Film d’oggi. Cinema was a fortnightly journal founded in the mid-1930s and directly subsidised by the Fascist

in Film modernism
Open Access (free)
Reading Half-Life
Barry Atkins

3 Gritty realism: reading Half-Life Half-Life [inc. Half-Life (1998), Half-Life: Opposing Force (1999), Half-Life: Blue Shift (2001)]. First-person shooter. The player controls the actions of an in-game protagonist from a firstperson perspective. What the player sees is what the protagonist would see. Progression through the game largely involves forward movement through a series of areas within a government research complex. There is a limited need to interact with objects and the landscape. All versions of the game offer variations on a basic escape and

in More than a game
Lez Cooke

the BBC to try to emulate ITV’s success with bland, middle-of-the-road dramas such as Heartbeat (Yorkshire 1992–) by commissioning equally unadventurous soap-star vehicles such as Harbour Lights (BBC 1999–2000) and Sunburn (BBC 1998–2000). Clocking Off provided the BBC with an opportunity to return to its traditional strengths with a northern working-class drama intent on updating social realism for a new ‘postmodern’ television audience. In the ratings-driven climate of the late 1990s when Clocking Off was being developed (under its original title of

in Popular television drama
Matt Sleat

7 The moderate hegemony of liberal realism Legitimacy is a central concept in realist thought. Though the popular caricature of realism, especially in international relations theory, encourages the view that might is synonymous with right, that the ability to rule is the same as the right to do so, realists have often stressed that this is not the case. Rather, there is an important difference between rule as mere domination and rule as authoritative that the concept of legitimacy allows us to determine. This begs the obvious question of how liberal realism

in Liberal realism
Dave Rolinson

Realism and censorship in the 1970s 2 In the previous chapter I sought elements of personal style exercised by a director working within collaborative institutional processes, reading his signatures within pieces whose writers had a predominant authorial investment or whose conditions of production restricted the critical construction of the director as unifying figure. To continue Clarke’s analogy between single drama and classic Hollywood, this put me in a similar position to early auteur critics as they compared directors working within the studio system

in Alan Clarke
Matt Sleat

6 The partisan foundations of liberal realism The aim of this chapter is to explore the ramifications for liberal theory of taking seriously the fact of political pluralism that incorporating the realist vision of politics demands. Any political theory that requires addressing or managing pluralism, be it moral, religious or political, will need to have an account of the origin and nature of that disagreement, for this will be crucial in determining the appropriate response. Realism has offered several different such accounts ranging from the clash of interests

in Liberal realism
Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

This chapter outlines the primary differences between realist and institutionalist perspectives on alliances and provides the theoretical background that frames the two hypotheses outlined in the Introduction. We argue that realism and institutionalism are distinctive, even if they are not necessarily exclusive of each other, and they arrive at quite different conclusions about the relevance of formal

in Partners in deterrence