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Ian Connor

1 The origins of the refugee problem German settlements in Eastern and Central Europe Even before the end of the Second World War, German refugees and expellees began to flood into Central Europe from the eastern territories of the Reich. Many of those who fled or were expelled from their homelands in Eastern Europe from 1944 onwards were the descendants of German settlers who had arrived as early as the twelfth century. Some of the earliest recorded settlements took place in Silesia and the Carpathian mountains where the political elites encouraged the

in Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany
Discretionary migration in the 1980s
A. James Hammerton

3 Thatcher’s refugees and Thatcher’s beneficiaries: discretionary migration in the 1980s A bleak image captured by photographer Barry Pollitt of a long queue in Manchester conveys familiar messages about popular interest in emigration among Britons. The patient crowd of ‘thousands’, we are told in one caption, stood under umbrellas ‘for hours’ hoping to attend an ‘Australian information day’.1 The photograph includes much of what we have come to associate with years of austerity emigration after 1945, with long-suffering Britons gathered on a wet March day in

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22
Emilia Salvanou

Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’ v 13 v From imperial dreams to the refugee problem: population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22 Emilia Salvanou Introduction The twentieth century came to be known as the century of the refugee, with the Great War marking the beginning of decades of forced human mobility.1 Nevertheless, especially as far as the Balkans are concerned, population mobility had started much earlier. By the nineteenth century, with the prospect of a diffusing discourse of nationalism and an Ottoman Empire that

in Europe on the move
Ian Connor

3 Relations between the refugee and native populations, 1945–50 Introduction German politicians have been apt to play down the difficulties involved in integrating the refugees and expellees into West German society since the Second World War. In particular, they have tended to portray the relations between the native and refugee populations in an excessively rosy light. For example, Hans Schütz, an influential CSU politician until the late 1960s who also played a leading role in the Sudeten German Homeland Society (Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft), asserted in

in Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany
Michaël Amara

Belgian refugees (France, Britain, Netherlands) v 9 v Belgian refugees during the First World War (France, Britain, Netherlands) Michaël Amara Introduction: the exodus The German invasion of Belgium in the First World War, from August to October 1914, led to the flight of more or less 1.5 million Belgian civilians. The vast majority of them sought asylum abroad, in the Netherlands, France and Great Britain. The magnitude of this exodus gave birth to a huge diaspora unique in the history of Belgium. Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children of all ages

in Europe on the move
Liubov Zhvanko and Oleksiy Nestulya

v 5 v Ukrainian assistance to refugees during the First World War1 Liubov Zhvanko and Oleksiy Nestulya Introduction The impact of war has been widely felt in modern Ukraine. The First World War acutely affected ethnic Ukrainians who lived under tsarist and Habsburg rule. This chapter concentrates on the impact of war on displaced Ukrainians before and after the collapse of tsarism in February 1917, whose lives were beset by political uncertainty, economic deprivation and social conflict. Tsarist Russia was a faltering giant with a backward economy and an

in Europe on the move
Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

Allwood 05 24/2/10 5 10:30 Page 129 Refugees, gender and citizenship in Britain and France This chapter explores the question of citizenship-building processes in relation to women asylum seekers and refugees and their civic participation not only in discrete refugee women’s community associations or organisations (RCOs) but also in (longer established) migrant women’s community associations.1 Its aim is fourfold: first, it discusses the relationship between the question of citizenship, refugee women and their associations; second, it presents an overview

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Ian Connor

5 The integration of the refugees into (West) Germany after 1950 Introduction Chapters 1–4 have demonstrated the immensity of the refugee problem in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany during the early post-war years showing, in particular, the acute material hardship that many newcomers suffered after their flight or expulsion to the West. While the general food situation had improved by 1950, many refugees continued to live in squalid housing conditions and unemployment remained a major issue in the early years of the Bundesrepublik, especially in Bavaria

in Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany
Jean-Hervé Bradol and Marc Le Pape

In 1995, the leaders of the Tutsi genocide had free reign in Zaire and set about marshalling their partisans in the refugee camps. Embarking on a combat strategy, they launched increasingly frequent and murderous incursions into Rwanda where they targeted civilians. In October and November 1996, the RPA, with the help of Zairian rebels, destroyed all the camps set up in North

in Humanitarian aid, genocide and mass killings
The Manchester Jewish Refugees Committee, 1939–1940
Bill Williams

7 ‘The work of succouring refugees is going forward’: the Manchester Jewish Refugees Committee, 1939–1940 The decisive factor which drew provincial communities into the more systematic rescue of refugees was the escalating number of those seeking entry to Britain following the Anschluss (March 1938), the German occupation of the Sudetenland (October 1938), the Kristallnacht pogrom (9 November 1938), the British Government’s decision to facilitate the entry of unaccompanied children on the Kindertransport (21 November 1938) and the German annexation of Bohemia and

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’