Film (New York: Knopf).
Wonderfully eloquent, learned and suggestive dialogues. Drawing upon his work on such films as Apocalypse Now (1979) and The English Patient (1996), Murch, prompted subtly by Ondaatje, teases out the aesthetics of picture and soundediting.
Orpen, Valerie (2002), Film Editing: The Art of the Expressive (London: Wallflower).
Good starting point: lacks Fairservice’s substantial historical detail, but clear, concise and featuring helpful case studies.
Rohdie, Sam (2006), Montage (Manchester: Manchester
manipulation of soundediting Rivette can even bring the tones of the Racinian verse spoken
onstage directly into connection with Claire, isolated in her flat.
Rivette’s 35mm camera, however, while it moves easily
around the length, breadth and height of the room, keeps a distance from the
performance space, rarely intruding itself into these interactions.
In fact it remains self-consciously detached, in a position comparable to
blimp. Mechanical sounds produced by the camera are constructed as
problematic in filmmaking practices, like those developed by the Hollywood
studio system, which prioritise the concepts of flow and continuity. In
classical cinema, sounds produced by the camera are prohibited not simply
because they signal the means of production, but also because soundedits
might be rendered audible by the varying levels and qualities of camera
Blunden Harbour (1951) , Gardner used asynchronous drumming and shamanic chanting to suggest transcendent significance. In his later ethnographic films, the soundediting becomes progressively more sophisticated. In
, the soundtrack is greatly enriched but largely in a straightforward realist manner. In Rivers of Sand ( 1974 ), however, it begins to take on a more metaphorical function. Early in the film, the sound from a shot of a donkey braying in synch is carried
and the first-hand acting out of key aspects of that life that the film-maker achieves ethnographic understanding. Also important, however, is the principle that this immersion should always involve active collaborative relationships with the subjects.
The making of
was collaborative in a number of different regards. In a precise technical sense, inspired by the example of Steven Feld's ground-breaking work among the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea, Ferrarini used soundediting software in
, from the opening soundedit (soft dance music to deafening machine noise), with a tracking shot set up in a real factory introducing the girls. The car park scenes are dramatically lit and edited, and when Eve climbs to the roof and a train speeds by below, we fear tragedy is looming. And locating personal tragedy in a carnival setting clearly references the French classic of poetic realism, Les Enfants du Paradis (1945). 11
Mellor’s positive references to both the film’s ‘noise’ and its allusion to Marcel Carné’s 1945 classic are, separately, contradicted in
affective level. Yet none of these aspects of the soundtrack are
addressed by the dominant conceptual modes applied to the analysis of film.
Similarly, while deconstruction provides a number of ways in which we might
make sense of Birdman’s audible soundediting, as a conceptual
mode it has no way of engaging with the visceral, affective shocks produced
by the film’s sonic construction.
What we witness in the films of Smith
, so we were really trying to cheat the gear into giving us responses we didn't have’ (Greenhalgh 2013 ). It is perhaps for these reasons that Maggs has pioneered the use of Surround Sound and digital audio workstations in radio production. Early in 1993, while planning to produce the third series of The Hitch-hiker’s Guide to the Galaxy , he requested ‘to use Macintosh-based digital soundediting and Dolby Pro Logic Surround Sound’ (Maggs 2005 ), even though very few listeners at the time had access to equipment that could play this. I shall discuss digital
bodies in love pours over into a representation of the
landscape as well: Berta mentions shooting one scene at five in the morning
in order to get blues and the reflections of the sunrise on the rocks, which are
filmed in the same colours and light as the bodies themselves.
5 We see such incursions on both sides, and it is underlined by soundediting
and frame composition as well. When Daniel buys Marie-Jo a boat for her
birthday, she gets a phone call from Marco who wants to sing ‘Happy Birthday’
98 Robert Guédiguian
The film’s narrative is most fully
, therefore they must be, and are approached differently in the development
of a work.’ 66
Ideas and practices cited by the artist-respondents on how they work
with sound include site-specificity, music composition, social engagement,
field or location recording, as well as voice, listening/perception, resonance,
background noise, soundediting, and production. In his interview, Northern California-based Cahuilla artist Lewis deSoto discusses his installation
AIR (1989), created during a residency at Headlands Center for the Arts in
Sausalito, California. His detailed