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Ali M. Ansari

Introduction For a state that regards itself as the intellectual heir to the French Revolution it is unsurprising that the ideas of ‘terror’ and ‘terrorism’ remain central to the controversies surrounding the nature of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1 From an American perspective, the seizure of the US embassy on 4 November 1979 transformed Iran from an intimate ally into the leading ‘state sponsor’ of terrorism; an appellation that even the thaw in relations under the Obama administration has done little to change. 2 The revolutionary state

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Christian Kaunert

with Dr Sarah Leonard The external dimension of EU counter-terrorism and international actorness This chapter analyses the external dimension of EU counter-terrorism, a crucial aspect in the fight against international terrorism, which has been much and hotly debated (Reinares, 2000; Dubois, 2002; den Boer and Monar, 2002 ; Mitsilegas and Gilmore, 2007; Occhipinti, 2003

in European internal security
Ekaterina Stepanova

Introduction The definition of terrorism used in this chapter interprets it as premeditated use or threat to use violence against civilian and other non-combatant targets intended to create broader intimidation and destabilization effects in order to achieve political goals by exercising pressure on the state and society . 1 This definition of terrorism excludes both the use of force by insurgent–militant actors against military targets and the repressive use of violence by the state itself against its own or foreign civilians. This author

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Mariela Breen-Smyth

Contemporary insecurities Mamdani (2002) argues that the ability to see ‘terrorism’ as a ‘new’ problem that began in September 2001 is dependent on an ahistoricism that denies more recent histories. Organisations such as al Qaida are not purely products of ‘radical Islam’ but co-productions of interrelationships with the West. Al Qaida was born of local political conditions and rivalries between Muslims and co-opted and deployed by the US in the past to serve its anti-Soviet political projects. During the Cold War, the ‘other’ was largely separated from

in Encountering extremism
Hussein Solomon

in South Africa, 6 as new recruits were trained in the deadly arts accompanying the rise of militant Islam across the African continent. For all these reasons, an effective counterterrorism policy is essential. If one examines the country's legislative framework, on the face of it South Africa does have a clear and comprehensive counterterrorism strategy. The US State Department's June 2015 Country Reports on Terrorism argues that the South African Police Service (SAPS) Crime Intelligence Division, the Directorate for Priority Crime Investigation, the

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Senia Febrica

Defense Department affirmed Southeast Asia as a crucial front in the War on Terror (WoT). The Principal Director for South and Southeast Asia in the US Department of Defense, Marine Brig. Gen. John Toolan, suggested that to win the fight against terrorism, Southeast Asia “has emerged quietly, but it is a crucial front in the long war” (US Department of Defense, 2007 ). Under this

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
A genealogy
Christopher Baker-Beall

2 Constructing the threat of terrorism in Western Europe and the European Union: a genealogy Introduction There can be little doubt that EU politicians and policy-makers view terrorism as one of the most pervasive threats to the security of the EU, its member states and its citizens. Speaking in 2008, the EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator (EU CTC) Gilles de Kerchove made this case by arguing that ‘terrorism remains the most significant actual threat facing democratic societies’.1 Drawing upon a ‘biological life’ metaphor, de Kerchove went on to state that the

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
A case study of MUHURI and HAKI Africa
Oscar Gakuo Mwangi

Introduction Kenya began prioritizing counter-terrorism efforts following the 9/11 attacks. The implementation of post-9/11 repressive state-led measures have led to the securitization of civil society organizations (CSOs) involved in counter-terrorism efforts in Kenya. The state socially constructs CSOs that advocate the rights of communities

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Zoha Waseem

Introduction Despite its position as a principal actor in the global war on terrorism since 2001, Pakistan has not adequately implemented counter-terrorism and security policies. Following the attacks on the Army Public School (APS) in Peshawar in 2014, Pakistan’s first official counter-terrorism policy, the National Action Plan (NAP), was

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Christian Kaunert

The European Union and the advent of international terrorism Amongst scholars of EU counter-terrorism, there are diverging opinions as to which extent EU competences matter in the fight against the global terrorist threat (Reinares, 2000 ; Dubois, 2002 ; den Boer and Monar, 2002 ; Mitsilegas and Gilmore, 2007; Occhipinti, 2003; Deflem, 2006 ; Bures, 2006, 2008

in European internal security