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Michael Loadenthal

4 Insurrection as warfare, terrorism, and revolutionary design I believe that the action of these specific incendiary groups contributed to the unstoppable course of anarchist insurrection. Incendiary attacks are an inseparable part of the struggle because they are easy to carry out by new comrades, keep the fire of belligerent hostilities burning and contribute to the spreading of anarchist violence. They add their own pebbles to the continuation of the anarchist urban guerrilla and cause trouble to the smooth running of the system. Of course arsons must occur

in The politics of attack
A foundation of understanding
James W. Peterson

many others. Russia responds to challenges from Chechnya The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the existence of a number of weakened successor states, and some of them were republics in the Russian Federation. The Caucasus, in the southwest area of Russia, was particularly vulnerable, and some republics became a “hotbed of terrorism.” Chechnya was the most troubled and visible of those geographic units, and the tensions within it spread to its neighbors as well. Those states also were porous ones through which drugs, organized crime, and

in Russian-American relations in the post-Cold War world
Politico-legal manoeuvres and political Islam
Bashir Saade

لائحة الإرهاﺏتبعكم، بلّوهاواشربوا مَيتّها (This ‘terrorism list’ of yours, soak it and drink its water; Hassan Nasrallah, widely broadcast speech, 25 May, 2013) Introduction Lebanon, like many other places in the world, has known deadly attacks against civilian areas that carried specific political messages. But unlike most other places, especially in the West, Lebanon's political tradition has been mired with car-bomb attacks, targeted assassinations and deadly plots of various kinds. Sporadic security incidents have rocked the capital and several key

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Ali M. Ansari

Introduction For a state that regards itself as the intellectual heir to the French Revolution it is unsurprising that the ideas of ‘terror’ and ‘terrorism’ remain central to the controversies surrounding the nature of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1 From an American perspective, the seizure of the US embassy on 4 November 1979 transformed Iran from an intimate ally into the leading ‘state sponsor’ of terrorism; an appellation that even the thaw in relations under the Obama administration has done little to change. 2 The revolutionary state

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

4 Terrorism as a tactic of wider-scale warfare In this chapter our focus is on insurgent groups that have used terrorism throughout their struggles to replace political regimes or in an effort to secede from a political community. First, though, we need to place this pattern of insurgency in context. Some of the old generalizations about terrorism no longer match contemporary realities. The notion that “terrorism is a weapon of the weak” no longer applies to many twenty-first century insurgencies. In addition, the belief that terrorists are interested in the

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Ekaterina Stepanova

Introduction The definition of terrorism used in this chapter interprets it as premeditated use or threat to use violence against civilian and other non-combatant targets intended to create broader intimidation and destabilization effects in order to achieve political goals by exercising pressure on the state and society . 1 This definition of terrorism excludes both the use of force by insurgent–militant actors against military targets and the repressive use of violence by the state itself against its own or foreign civilians. This author

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Christian Kaunert

with Dr Sarah Leonard The external dimension of EU counter-terrorism and international actorness This chapter analyses the external dimension of EU counter-terrorism, a crucial aspect in the fight against international terrorism, which has been much and hotly debated (Reinares, 2000; Dubois, 2002; den Boer and Monar, 2002 ; Mitsilegas and Gilmore, 2007; Occhipinti, 2003

in European internal security
Senia Febrica

Defense Department affirmed Southeast Asia as a crucial front in the War on Terror (WoT). The Principal Director for South and Southeast Asia in the US Department of Defense, Marine Brig. Gen. John Toolan, suggested that to win the fight against terrorism, Southeast Asia “has emerged quietly, but it is a crucial front in the long war” (US Department of Defense, 2007 ). Under this

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Mariela Breen-Smyth

Contemporary insecurities Mamdani (2002) argues that the ability to see ‘terrorism’ as a ‘new’ problem that began in September 2001 is dependent on an ahistoricism that denies more recent histories. Organisations such as al Qaida are not purely products of ‘radical Islam’ but co-productions of interrelationships with the West. Al Qaida was born of local political conditions and rivalries between Muslims and co-opted and deployed by the US in the past to serve its anti-Soviet political projects. During the Cold War, the ‘other’ was largely separated from

in Encountering extremism
The weapon of the weakest?
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

5 Terrorism after wars: the weapon of the weakest? We have come across a number of instances in which serious terrorist violence followed rather than preceded insurgencies. Much of the writing on the subject has suggested that terrorism is used during an early attentiongetting stage of an insurgency (see Chapter 3). In this chapter we investigate circumstances in which terrorist violence appears to follow or increase toward the end of an internal war. Unlike wars between states, internal wars are usually depicted as fights to the finish: either the challengers

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare