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Taranchis during the uprising of 1916 in Semirech’e and the “Atu” massacre of 1918
Ablet Kamalov

that had rights of possession in the land through use. In the 1880s, colonial policy in Turkestan became more oriented towards Slavs, as a result of which the Russian population of the region grew remarkably rapidly.25 The Taranchis did not receive “native” status until 1899. Given that the majority of Taranchi settlers were impoverished peasants, quite a lot of them were unable to work even the five desyatinas of land allocated to them by the Russian authorities, and they ended up joining the ranks of landless peasants. The dehqans lamented that, “a terrible fear

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Patrick O’Leary

backed on to the hostile environment of the Tibetan plateau, from the north-east by thick jungle and the waters of the Brahmaputra and Ganges, and by the deserts and hills of the north-west. The only conceivable threats, given the weakness of the dying Chinese empire, were a Russian incursion through Afghanistan or Russian Turkestan or a move by France through Siam into Burma. The

in Servants of the empire
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Maria Taroutina

practitioners as evidenced by the numerous extant works of Russian Orientalist painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, theater, music, and ballet. From the fashionable chinoiserie and turquerie of Catherine the Great’s court, to Ivan Argunov’s portrayal of a Kalmyk girl (1767), Ivan Aivazovskii’s moonlit views of Constantinople (1840s), Vasilii Vereshchagin’s controversial Turkestan series (1868–72), and Pavel Kuznetsov’s modernist steppe paintings of sheep-tending Kyrgyz women (1912), Orientalism had persisted over the course

in Russian Orientalism in a global context
Law between semicolonial China and the Raj
Emily Whewell

Empire laid claim to Xinjiang after conquest in 1759, but as a distant land far from imperial power in Beijing, Qing rule was always tenuous. Most prominently, a rebellion led by the Khoqandi warlord Yaqub Beg, establishing the independent state of ‘Turkestan’ (1865–77), demonstrated the fragile central control of Qing power. 5 The Chinese Empire later poured more resources into reconsolidating its sovereignty in a military conquest. It became a province in 1884 and the Qing renamed it ‘Xinjiang’, meaning the ‘New Frontier’. As a province on the edge of the Qing

in Law across imperial borders
The decline of consular rights, 1917–39
Emily Whewell

the necessity of Chinese acquiescence of transfrontier trade of key commodities and the need for a treaty basis for the exercise of his consular powers. Although Etherton could see the applicability of the treaty for Xinjiang, it was wishful thinking. In spring of 1920, the long-anticipated process of the abrogation of Russian extraterritoriality finally started. In April, members of the newly established Soviet Turkestan Commission pledged to terminate the privileges formally enjoyed by subjects of the Czarist Empire. In return, they asked for the reopening of

in Law across imperial borders
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‘You know nothing, Jon Snow’
Asim Qureshi

terms of ‘Power’ instead. There are good reasons to choose the latter term, particularly within a national security context, considering the seemingly exponential rise of Hindutva nationalism in India and Han-centric cultural genocide in East Turkestan. With many White Muslims also the subject of ‘racialisation’ within the context of national security, our ideas about how racism as a system and structure of power works are complicated. That said, many of the authors in this volume have chosen to use ‘Whiteness’ as a construct that they feel describes a structure of

in I Refuse to Condemn
Neil Collins
and
Andrew Cottey

Understanding Chinese politics protests at Chinese rule have, at least according to PRC accounts, often involved a militant separatist group. The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) is said to seek an independent, Islamic state of East Turkestan, though its very existence is disputed. Not one significant terrorist attack against any strategic infrastructural target . . . has ever been documented, nor have any incidents been verifiably identified with any international Uyghur or Islamic organization . . . Such as they are, China’s Uyghur separatists are small in number

in Understanding Chinese politics
Nadya Ali

others so that we, and those we are bound to, might grow.18 A love ethic, as she calls it, ‘transforms our lives by offering us a different set of values to live by’.19 Out of the heinous violence of Christchurch, the everyday Islamophobia of the UK, the Islamophobia which is manifest in the camps of East Turkestan, or in the lynchings in India, I am reminded that the feelings that drive me to resist, and even to take hope, are feelings of the deepest love I hold for each of you. That you might grow, study, worship, agitate, organise, work, and live in a place that is

in I Refuse to Condemn
Theodore Roosevelt’ssecond corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Charlie Laderman

Russia in Turkestan. He viewed US expansion overseas as consistent with a larger manifest destiny, considering it part of a larger dissemination of European peoples and their principles. For a man of Roosevelt’s assertive nationalism and moralistic bent, however, US expansion could not simply serve as an equivalent of European imperialism. As the historian Richard Leopold once

in Rhetorics of empire
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Encountering and knowing ice in and beyond colonial India
Thomas Simpson

seventeenth century was thereby harnessed to growing awareness among Europeans in the late nineteenth century that the ice of High Asia was liable to change rapidly. Recent historical climatology has shown that the global Little Ice Age continued unusually late in the Karakoram. Enhanced British efforts from the 1860s to gain footholds in the political and trading worlds of the contiguous locales of Ladakh and Turkestan (Gardner, 2021 : 92–132) coincided with the growth of many of the largest extra-polar glaciers in the world (along with surprising and much

in Ice humanities