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Valletta, Rangoon and new capitals
John M. MacKenzie

. The provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim were taken after the first Burmese War in 1824; Lower Burma in 1852 after the second, and Upper Burma after the third in 1885. A major centre was developed after each war: Moulmein in the Tenasserim panhandle (now Mawlamyine), Rangoon on the Rangoon river, one of the arms of the delta of the Irrawaddy (now Ayeyarwaddy), and Mandalay in the north.19 The British transformed these three into significant colonial cities, overlaying, but not entirely obliterating, indigenous settlements as they did so. The former Moulmein, capital

in The British Empire through buildings
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People crossing the frontier, 1911–25
Emily Whewell

frontier. Finally, I demonstrate how consuls enabled Burmese officials to exercise colonial law over British subjects who had committed crimes in Chinese territory and had returned to Burma. This extension of colonial law across established borders into the consular district of Tengyue enabled colonial officials to exercise a form of transfrontier jurisdictional power. Colonial administration, political borders and territorial law Following the annexation of Upper Burma in 1885, the Burmese government attempted to create a structure of authority through a mixture of

in Law across imperial borders
Prince Alfred’s precedent in overseas British royal tours, c. 1860– 1925
Cindy McCreery

planned his own, more splendid India tour in 1875–1876, yet this connection remains underexplored. While Alfred’s precedent was clearly important in shaping the Indian as well as other royal tours, it was not followed either blindly or exactly. Local as well as metropolitan circumstances shaped later tours. Thus, Alfred did not visit Burma on his tour of India, but, following the annexation of Upper Burma

in Royals on tour
The two sides of provincial violence in early modern Burma
Michael W. Charney

raiding of other villages occurred even in good times, but especially in bad times. In the period examined here, villagers moved out of areas in the face of excessive exactions by Konbaung officials, and looked further afield. When delta villagers pushed north into the dry zone closer to the royal centre they found security measures much weaker than they had in the delta. The Irrawaddy River that connected Upper Burma, the central dry zone, and the southern delta together, no longer remained a safe channel of communication, requiring the appointment of a special officer

in A global history of early modern violence
Robin Jared Lewis

usual stereotyped figures of Anglo-Indian fiction with characters of human proportions. The story takes place in a small trading town in Upper Burma called Kyauktada. The opening description is of the insular European section of the town, huddled together in the midst of a terrain which humiliatingly dwarfs it: There was an English cemetery

in Asia in Western fiction
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The empire in one city?
Sheryllynne Haggerty, Anthony Webster, and Nicholas J. White

(often in collaboration with other provincial interests) in the promotion of direct British administration during the partition of Africa has been stressed by William Hynes. 25 In Southeast Asia, meanwhile, the East India and China Trade Section of the LCC was ‘very vociferous’ during the annexation of Upper Burma (1885–86). Anthony Webster has likewise emphasised a similar pattern of collaboration

in The empire in one city?
William H. Schneider

encroachment from India, the King of Burma sent a diplomatic mission to Europe in 1872 which signed commercial treaties with Italy as well as France. John F. Cady, A History of Modern Burma , Ithaca, 1958, pp. 108–9. Upper Burma was an area close to the region explored by Francis Gamier in the late 1860s. Also important to note as background to the subsequent actions of the Chambres

in Imperialism and the natural world
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Mary A. Procida

MacKenzie, Empire of Nature , 171. 43 Sir Harcourt Butler, A Big Game Shoot in Upper Burma (Rangoon, 1923), British Library. 44 See E.P. Thompson, Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act (New York, 1975 ), for a discussion of

in Married to the empire
Law between semicolonial China and the Raj
Emily Whewell

As Britain consolidated its authority over Upper Burma from 1885, the Indian government turned towards British India’s northern frontier and northwestern China. Xinjiang was a province of the Qing Empire, but as a region bounded by the mountains and vast stretches of desert, it was also a place that topographically defied strong imperial control. 1 Russia had a growing presence in the north of the province and both the Indian government and Foreign Office viewed a British presence in Xinjiang as an essential bulwark against the Czarist Empire. British Indian

in Law across imperial borders