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How London and Birmingham said no to dispersal
Olivier Esteves

“tinker Irish” who “pose[d] really serious problems and educational difficulties” ought to be pigeonholed as immigrants, whereas the bulk of them merely “trying to adjust” should not.4 This hybridity should hardly seem surprising for, as Kevin Myers puts it, “The Irish inhabited their own distinct community of Britishness which managed to combine widespread prejudice with a sense that they somehow belonged to, or could be tolerated in, British society”.5 Birmingham’s officialdom had no such qualms about West Indians. According to a 1965 consultative document entitled “A

in The “desegregation” of English schools
Mixed-race Venuses and Vixens as the fruits of imperial enterprise
Mia L. Bagneris

their Proper Dress, mid-late eighteenth century Brown-skinned booty, or colonising Diana Agostino Brunias, French Mulatress of St. Dominica and a Negro Woman, mid-late eighteenth century sexually charged nature of Brunias’s West Indian paintings, probing in particular the pronounced confluence of colonialism and the fetishisation of the mixed-race female body evident in these works. Observing the conspicuous omnipresence of the mulatress in the artist’s Caribbean pictures, I aim to discover why these brown female bodies, who appear in painting after painting

in Colouring the Caribbean
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Mary Chamberlain

shuffle off an onerous financial burden onto the shoulders of Barbadian and Antiguan taxpayers’. Barbados, in its turn, feared (like Jamaica, and Trinidad before) that it would end up financing a federation of paupers. The British conceded that their aid had not been as generous as the Americans, French or Dutch in the region and that this ‘combined with the fact that West Indian politicians are some of

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
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Daniel Owen Spence

this participation is explained by an intrinsic connection to the sea that permeated every facet of Caymanian society. Whereas other West Indian islanders ‘remained tied to the land even in postslavery times and … viewed their coastlines as boundaries or barriers’, the Caymans’ lack of terrestrial resources meant that they always ‘depended on the sea as a resource and an avenue

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
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Daniel Owen Spence

drawn to higher-paid construction work following the 1940 Destroyers-for-Bases agreement. 44 The TRNVR already included British, Canadian, and South African officers, and Norwegians from the requisitioned minesweeping trawlers Ornen III and Thorvard . 45 Additional recruits had to be sourced from Britain’s other West Indian colonies, with the first Guyanese

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
The British, the Americans, the War and the move to Federation
Mary Chamberlain

Indian’ flag. Coloured Americans and coloured West Indians in America have their eyes bent on the result of this conference. 1 The start of the Second World War in 1939 turned the attention of the Colonial Office – and the United States – on the Caribbean. The support of West Indians was vital. In the Eastern Caribbean Barbados was

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
Racism and alternative journeys into Britishness
Tony Kushner

throughout all the discussions the need for stricter procedures to limit the number of stowaways was accepted. There was, within the category of ‘coloured colonials’, a clear hierarchy of undesirability/desirability: Since 1945 certain new developments have occurred which have resulted in an increase of at least 5,000 persons almost all of whom are West Africans and West Indians. Among these new immigrants the troublesome elements are (1) Stowaways (2) Seafarers and to a lesser degree (3) fare paying immigrant workers. The stowaways were the largest group, consisting of

in The battle of Britishness
John Byrn, Irish merchant of Kingston, Jamaica (September–October 1756)
Thomas M. Truxes

said, ‘the streets spacious, and regularly laid out, cutting one another at right angles’. 3 At mid-century, Kingston had a population of perhaps 10,000, and was on its way to becoming the third largest city in British America after Philadelphia and New York. 4 Roughly two-thirds of the population was composed of free and enslaved blacks, and, unlike other British West Indian

in Ireland, slavery and the Caribbean
Open Access (free)
Feminism, anti-colonialism and a forgotten fight for freedom
Alison Donnell

When we think about the factors that have contributed to the beginnings of a West Indian British intellectual tradition, we would commonly bring to mind the towering figure of C. L. R. James and his comrades of the pre- Windrush generation, such as George Padmore. It would also be important to acknowledge the generation of nationalist writers and thinkers based in the Caribbean itself, such

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Douglas J. Hamilton

remarked upon ‘the great influx of money from the East and West Indies’ as a contributing factor in ‘the increasing prosperity of this burgh.’ 2 A return to Britain did not always involve a home-coming to Scotland, however. For many Scots, settlement in England was as attractive as a return to their home locality. London was an especially popular destination, as were areas with strong West Indian connections

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820