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Helen Boak

Fundamental to the image of the ‘new woman’ in the 1920s was her economic emancipation. David Schoenbaum writes of ‘the economic liberation of thousands of women sales clerks … an ever increasing contingent of women doctors, lawyers, judges and social workers … social forces that had brought thousands of women into shops, offices, and professions in competition with men’. 1 However, work is of itself not emancipatory for women; only when it provides them with the means to live independently of any other financial support can it be deemed emancipatory

in Women in the Weimar Republic
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Activism, feminism and the rise of the female office worker during the First World War and its immediate aftermath
Nicole Robertson

9 Women at work: activism, feminism and the rise of the female office worker during the First World War and its immediate aftermath Nicole Robertson One of the most dramatic changes to working lives in twentieth-century Britain was the exponential growth of the non-manual labour force. Clerical work was one of the fastest-growing categories within this sector, as the expansion of modern corporations and government administration caused a flood of paperwork, necessitating a dramatic increase in office staff.1 Prominent changes in this sector are often associated

in Labour and working-class lives
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Refugees and the French war economy, 1939–40
Scott Soo

4 Ambiguities at work: refugees and the French war economy, 1939–40 Throughout the 1930s officials and employers in south-western France had associated Spanish migrants primarily with their role in the economy. Whether in rural or urban areas, Spaniards were perceived as hardworking and exploitable but also effective workers. In Bordeaux, employers preferred to hire Spanish dockers rather than their French counterparts.1 A similar picture emerged from a study conducted in the late 1930s involving interviews with French farmers in the south-west.2 By 1939, a

in The routes to exile

The book is about the changing nature of work and employment relations power. It is directed at those who are activists or supporters of goals for a better and more equitable working life, including students, policy makers, trade unionists and CSO/NGO activists. The book engages with competing debates and perspectives about labour agency, examining inter alia the power of the nation state, issues of bogus self-employment and the gig economy, and the inequalities from market reform and globalisation. The book supports a range of modes of student learning, including courses for trade union and community groups. Its contents cover the employment contract, the power of the state, technology and work, globalisation, employee voice and union mobilisation, worker voices beyond the workplace, the future of work and the goals towards a ‘decent’ work agenda.

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The function of employment in British psychiatric care after 1959
Vicky Long

16 Work is therapy? The function of employment in British psychiatric care after 1959 Vicky Long As the contributions to this volume demonstrate, work and occupation have long formed part of mental healthcare. Yet in the post-war era, the adoption of the policy of psychiatric deinstitutionalisation transformed the nature and intended functions of employment for people with mental health problems within British psychiatric hospitals, and beyond. This chapter focuses on industrial therapy (IT), which hospitals increasingly embraced as part of rehabilitation

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
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Rob Stone

9 Work in progress By April 2004, La pelota vasca was still causing aftershocks and reflection in all who had participated in its production. Koldo Zuazua was ‘content, but not proud; actually rather disturbed’ [13] while Medem declared ‘it’s very ironic, but thanks to the Partido Popular I can now pay all my debts’ [5]. Moreover, the debate about the Basque conflict had extended beyond Spain as the film played in international festivals. Meanwhile, a somewhat reclusive Medem saw out his prior commitments by filming television advertisements for an electric

in Julio Medem
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Martin O’Shaughnessy

3 The work diptych In a founding gesture that seemed to set a pattern, the first French film, the Lumière brothers’ famous Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory in Lyon (1895), captured exit from the workplace rather than the toil within it. Associated with free time and with distraction from labour, cinema has generally avoided more than fleeting engagement with work (Comolli, 2004: 338–46). Breaking with this more general pattern, some recent French film has shown sustained interest in the workplace (Cadé, 2000). The period since about 1995 has seen a resurgence

in Laurent Cantet
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Spare Time
Keith Beattie

Work and leisure: Spare Time 2 Alberto Cavalcanti, the film’s producer, called Spare Time ‘one of the best films the GPO ever made’ and Dai Vaughan, in his portrait of Stewart McAllister, calls the film ‘a curiously important [film] in the history of British documentary’.1 Jennings rejoined the GPO Film Unit just prior to making Spare Time, which was his first major film and the last major film of the GPO Film Unit before it became the Crown Film Unit late in 1940 under the auspices of the Films Division of the Ministry of Infor­ mation. This important though

in Humphrey Jennings
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The social dimension of EU–Africa relations
Jan Orbie

The social dimension of EU–Africa relations 14 Work in progress: the social dimension of EU–Africa relations Jan Orbie Since the early 2000s, the European Union (EU) has explicitly committed itself to promoting the social dimension of globalisation.1 The emergence of this new external policy objective reflects broader trends such as the post-­Washington Consensus in the development sphere and the resurrection of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) as the core institution for global social governance.2 More specifically, the ILO’s social dimension of

in The European Union in Africa
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Rejuvenating ‘supply-side’ explanations
Darren Halpin

Introduction The work of Mancur Olson (1965) on the ‘collective action problem’ has perhaps been the dominant influence on contemporary group scholarship. An obligatory section in text books and a mandatory reference in articles on group formation and maintenance, Olson’s contribution has been profound. In the US, the most authoritative recent review of the interest group field attributes the sheer volume of studies on group formation to the dominance of Olson’s hypothesis (Baumgartner and Leech 1998). In the

in Groups, representation and democracy