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Of races and genocides
Marion Andrea Schmidt

Today, Alexander Graham Bell is most famous for his invention of the telephone. In his time, however, he was also known as a eugenicist and as a highly influential figure in deaf education. These combined interests in eugenics and education led him to look into the marriage patterns of deaf people and whether their children were hearing or deaf. He studied census data and records from residential schools, where at the time most deaf children were educated. These schools also were centres of flourishing deaf communities, with their own clubs, churches, and

in Eradicating deafness?
Religion, eugenics and war
Ralph Desmarais

12 Governing science on BBC radio in 1930s Britain: religion, eugenics and war Ralph Desmarais During the 1930s, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) aired hundreds of science-related radio talks in its evening programming schedule, most delivered by renowned scientists and scientific popularisers. In both authorship and content, these BBC scripted talks often overlapped with the wide range of non-specialist popular science books whose published titles had proliferated over the preceding decades to meet the British adult public’s increasing demand for

in Scientific governance in Britain, 1914–79
Deaf people as objects of research, reform, and eugenics, 1900–1940
Marion Andrea Schmidt

for addressing the ‘problem of deafness’ more generally, as a matter of public health and prevention. Heredity research and its eugenic application were part of these larger conversations about disability, childhood, and public health, about how to increase the efficiency of education and put science and medicine to ‘restoring’ the disabled. 1 If we want to understand how eugenics became part of these conversations, and how it ties in with oralist education, we need to look back at the history of the school, and how deafness and deaf people were treated in

in Eradicating deafness?
The constitutive terrain of anarchist eugenics
Richard Cleminson

2 Science, revolution and progress: the constitutive terrain of anarchist eugenics Introduction The central proposition of eugenics – that it was possible, desirable and necessary to augment the ‘best’ stocks and combat the proliferation of the ‘unfit’ – drew on a cluster of nineteenth-century anxieties about the rate, consistency and sustainability of social and biological progress. The question posed was how best this progress could be achieved and maintained. In 1883, Francis Galton identified the characteristics of a new science that aimed to do just this.1

in Anarchism and eugenics
Martine Monacelli

to give expression to their wishes on measures likely to affect their interests. 6 A eugenicist point of view on the marriage question Karl Pearson (1857–1936), born into a Quaker family, is mostly known as the mathematician who, in 1911, founded the first Department of Applied Statistics in the world. A man of brilliant intellect and eclectic tastes, Pearson embraced freethought and socialism, consorted with the Fabians, the anarchists and the Theosophists, and became a passionate proponent of Eugenics, a science invented by the man who became

in Male voices on women's rights
David Starr Jordan, eugenics and the Anglo-American anti-war movement
Gavin Baird and Bradley W. Hart

12 The Stanford connection: David Starr Jordan, eugenics and the Anglo-American anti-war movement Gavin Baird and Bradley W. Hart As Europe descended into the abyss of war in the late summer of 1914, one of the world’s best-known peace advocates was visiting the genteel surroundings of Cambridge University. Shocked by the rapid escalation of violence and realising that his life’s mission of preventing young men from being sent to die on the battlefield had failed, this high-profile academic bemoaned that the mere ‘incident’ of Franz Ferdinand’s assassination

in Labour, British radicalism and the First World War
The Progressive League and the quest for sexual reform in British politics, 1932–59
Janet Shepherd

, ‘The Federation of Progressive Societies and Individuals’, Journal of Contemporary History, 11 (1976), 49–82. Throughout its long existence, the organisation also ran a full programme of cultural activities – most notably music, poetry, theatre trips, painting, country dancing and rambling. Wrigley.indb 134 08/03/2017 17:45:40 The Progressive League and the quest for sexual reform 135 This chapter will examine the role of the little-known PL in the progress of sexual reform in the mid-twentieth century, including birth control, eugenics, abortion law reform

in Labour and working-class lives
Chloe Campbell

the colony also fed into an international circuit interested in race and intelligence through research conducted under the auspices of the Carnegie Corporation. But first of all, any discussion of eugenics and social policy needs to take into account the limits of the Kenyan state. As Joanna Lewis has demonstrated, the Kenyan colonial state was peculiarly spartan in its provision of social welfare and

in Race and empire
Marsh and the female offender
Johan Höglund

, Nordau influentially suggested that the increasingly urban and decadent cultures and citizens of fin-de-siècle Europe showed evidence of a counter-evolutionary process. Nordau dedicated his book to the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whose main contention was that crime was often hereditary, the irresistible impulse of an atavistic mind housed in a similarly primitive body, and that the ‘born criminal’ could be identified by physical ‘stigmata’ that indicated the person’s criminal propensities. These ideas connected with Francis Galton’s eugenics movement and

in Richard Marsh, popular fiction and literary culture, 1890–1915
Thomas Linehan

enthusiasm for socialism and Marxist economics. His socialism, however, acquired an increasingly authoritarian and reactionary character by the early 1900s, as he endeavoured to apply evolutionary concepts and statistical methods to the contemporary debate on race. Besides being a positivist and a progenitor of national socialism, Pearson was a eugenicist, who in 1911 became the first Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University of London. 34 At the more general level, British fascism bequeathed from Social-Darwinism the notion of evolutionary development and ascent to

in British Fascism 1918-39