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Jarle Trondal
Martin Marcussen
Torbjörn Larsson
, and
Frode Veggeland

principle is conducive to the emergence of an intergovernmental dynamic among the staff. The national connection is upheld under the quota principle, securing a staff loyal to the domestic constituency. Intergovernmental organisations typically employ the quota principle and different systems of secondment in order to uphold the geographical balances of posts and territorially loyal delegates, such as in the NATO and the UN Secretariats (Bennett and Oliver 2002: 413; Mouritzen 1990; Reymond and Mailick 1986). Studying officials in international bureaucracies sometimes

in Unpacking international organisations
Abstract only
Christian Kaunert

Secretariat, (4) five Members of the European Parliament (Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, LIBE) (5) twelve non-governmental organisation (NGO) representatives, (6) two officials from the intergovernmental organisations (IGOs) UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), and (7) two academic experts in the field. Which documents were

in European internal security
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Security on the western flank
Robert Mason

. Gulf intervention and broader competition encompassing key Egyptian national security issues and the presence of Turkey in Somalia and Ethiopia have also created aspects of instability. This could have a particularly grave effect in places such as Somalia which are already suffering from the effects of drought and disintegration. The duality of instability – that from competing GCC and other interests being superimposed on the Horn as well as domestic and regional challenges – could further compromise local cooperation through intergovernmental organisations such as

in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates
Abstract only
Claire Sutherland

relative global insignificance, with Vietnam showing commitment to the intergovernmental organisation since its accession in 1995. On the other hand, Germany has always been a linchpin of European integration, due to post-war peacemaking, but its pro-European discourse has come under attack since German unification. Chapter 3 looks at how nation-building in unified Germany and Vietnam set about overcoming decades of division by

in Soldered states
Abstract only
Patrick Thornberry

Rights: Text and Materials (London, Sweet & Maxwell, 1997). The UN and other intergovernmental organisations give ever-increasing publicity to their instruments and work in practice: see Human Rights: A Compilation of International Instruments (New York and Geneva, 1997), ST/HR/1/Rev. 5, vols. I and II. The expanding organisational websites on the Internet are a further source. On religious freedom, see K. Boyle and J. Sheen (eds.), Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report (London and New York, Routledge, 1997). 98 See ch. 9 of this volume. 99 See ch. 17 of this

in Indigenous peoples and human rights
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The globalisation of an idea
Kelly Kollman

staged process of norm creation, promotion and internalisation with different actors and behavioural logics taking precedence in each phase. International entrepreneurs, usually working within intergovernmental organisations and motivated by ideational commitments, dominate the norm creation phase, while the promotion of norms to state actors often relies on activists to locate, shame and engage norm-violating states in a dialogue about the virtues of compliance. In much of the constructivist literature on the human rights regime social movement organisations working

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Neil McNaughton

political integration unless the problem of the democratic deficit is tackled. Indeed, by 2002 Britain led the section of the EU which opposes further moves towards federation. 264 Understanding British and European political issues Should the Conservative party regain power, the prospects for closer union will become even more remote. It will require a major shift in public opinion for any British government to support a deeper union. So, for the time being Britain wants the EU to remain an intergovernmental organisation, rather than a supranational one. Having said

in Understanding British and European political issues
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Thibaut Raboin

s have tended to leave aside the situation of trans claimants, which is reflected in the corpus considered here. In addition, the specificity of the experience of trans claimants would necessitate a separate comprehensive analysis. Since 2014, a greater acknowledgement of the under-discussion of trans issues in relation to asylum and forced migration has occurred, both among advocates and intergovernmental organisations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the latter, for example, calling in its 2015 report for more research and

in Discourses on LGBT asylum in the UK
Carla Monteleone
Kseniya Oksamytna

). Institutions can take the form of formal intergovernmental organisations, such as the UN, but also of international regimes, that is ‘principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given issue-area’ (Krasner 1982 : 185), such as the Bretton Woods international monetary regime, and conventions, that is ‘informal institutions with implicit rules and understandings, that shape the expectations of actors’ (Keohane 1989 : 4). All three institutional forms create expectations on states’ behaviour, reducing the uncertainty

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Sarah von Billerbeck

understanding of the world, those actors are likely to perceive it as an existential threat. Sociological institutionalism and UN peacekeeping There is a relative paucity of sociological institutionalist analyses of UN peacekeeping. This is partly the result of a general neglect of international organisations more broadly in sociological institutionalist studies, which have focused primarily on private firms and local government agencies, and only rarely on large international, intergovernmental organisations (Benner et al. 2011 : 53

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory