lack a concrete agenda and a regular monitoring system. An extraordinary dense network of multilevel dialogue forums between the two parties contrasts with decreasing interdependences in terms of trade and other interdependences (migration flows, investmentanddevelopment co-operation).
Today the EU remains top trading partner for only Cuba and Brazil – all other countries have either China or the US as their top trade partner. In an inter-regional context characterised by declining trade relations and a closer partnership between Latin America
-Turabi, the éminence grise of Islamists in Sudan, as a threat to regional stability.
Sudan supports the UAE's position on its disputed islands of Abu Musa, Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb in the Strait of Hormuz. The UAE is one of the largest investors of the Sudanese economy. ‘The UAE has provided more than AED28 billion in investmentsanddevelopment financing in Sudan, while 17 UAE companies are operating in various economic sectors in Sudan.’
remarked to us, ‘Education means everything to African families. We have our
own ethos for schools: it’s not by their colour that balloons fly, it’s by their
1 The first volume was initially launched in 2007.
2 The RAPID Programme (Revitalising Areas through Planning InvestmentandDevelopment) was launched in 2002 with the aim of delivering priority investment to
designated disadvantaged areas. The term disadvantaged as used herein may refer to
designated disadvantaged areas or to ‘disadvantaged schools.’ The Department of
Post-2014 adjustment policies in the Arab Gulf and beyond
Martin Beck and Thomas Richter
(accessed 18 April 2020).
Worland , J.
( 2020 ), ‘ Answers to six key questions about the oil price collapse ’, Time , 11 March.
(accessed 16 March 2020).
World Bank ( 2003 ), Trade, investment, anddevelopment in the Middle East and North Africa: Engaging with the world . Washington, DC : World Bank .
World Bank ( 2019 ), ‘ Labor
to engage with the principles of communitarianism. Pobal was established by government as a limited company
to manage Irish and EU funds, promoting a wide range of initiatives operating in marginalised communities, including: community graffiti reduction
programmes; RAPID (revitalising communities by planning, investmentanddevelopment); dormant accounts; grants for community and voluntary
organisations; community services programme; community-
scheme and the local development social inclusion programme.16 Also, the
Irish Youth Justice Service
Service (LES); review of Social Economy and
Basic Income (BI) ideas; measures on educational
Social spending envelope of €1.5 billion; tax and
welfare reform for low paid; minimum wage
from 2000; review group on indexing social
welfare to earnings; Revitalising Areas through
Planning, InvestmentandDevelopment (RAPID)
programme; Child Care strategy formulation;
educational disadvantage package;
No new money promised; support of NAPS
target of € 150 p/w (2002 prices) by 2007; 10
special initiatives: Housing and Accommodation;
party ruled over the transformation of
Sweden into a modern welfare state, folkhemmet (the ‘People’s
Home’; see Tilton 1990:125 ff.): ‘Now, we have a similar mission.
We will realise the vision of a green welfare state, and bring about
Up or down with the ecology cycle?
a thorough ecological modernisation of Sweden’ (SAP 1997;
italics added). In its Finance Plan for 1997, the Social Democratic
Cabinet stated that the transformation of Sweden into a ‘green
means an increased demand for investmentsand
, undesirable (from Japan's perspective) multipolarity. Indeed, China's promotion of the Belt and Road Initiative from 2013 was viewed by Japan as a challenge to the established trade, investment, anddevelopment order. Its refusal to acknowledge the 2016 ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration against its territorial claims in the South China Sea was seen in Japan as a threat to international law.
To address what it saw as the emergence of a coercive
was ‘expediated development’, especially in the Uyghur-majority south of the region (Wei and Cuifen 2010 ). As part of this increased development, the CCP implemented a novel public–private partnership model for this area that matched municipalities outside the region in China proper with specific parts of the XUAR for investmentanddevelopment projects (Jia 2010 ). This programme raised the settler colonization of the region to a new level as it also brought an influx of Han-led companies with their capital and their Han workers. As Cliff suggests, the goals of
. These communities, however, never really grew in the manner that original planners
had hoped. Situating the stadium at Sénart was intended as a concrete step
that would help attract investmentanddevelopment to that community,
‘rebalancing’ the eastern part of the greater Parisian metropolitan area to
counter the growth elsewhere in the region.110 In language borrowed from
the world of sport, the Sénart stadium was described as form of ‘doping’,
a catalyst to the development of the region through state investment in
infrastructure and transport, particularly through