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Joe Earle
Cahal Moran
, and
Zach Ward-Perkins

engaging critically with the discipline’s academic literature. This has many purposes, including giving the student an understanding of the debates and research agendas in their discipline, and allowing the student to engage independently and critically with academics while improving research and review skills. In economics, by contrast, textbooks play a dominant role and few modules, particularly core modules, have any required reading from economics journals. Students are rarely required to undertake independent research and, as a student so aptly stated, ‘the textbook

in The econocracy
The Foundation Economy Collective

persons with many of the same rights as natural persons. This third section argues that the duties of corporate actors operating in a foundational sphere should be made explicit and the private companies active in these areas should be brought within a reframed constitution. The moral basis of foundational provision It has long been recognised that economies do have moral foundations and that the behaviour of economic institutions and individuals should be guided by moral ends. In the classical economic literature, Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776) is underpinned by

in Foundational economy
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Making Marxist use of Keynes
Bill Dunn

‘spaces’ and discontinuities, amongst other things, as workers more or less consciously refuse to behave like commodities. This points to limits in the orientation of most of the Keynesian literature on the ‘downward’ stickiness of wages, with the presumption that it would be good to cut wages if only that were possible. However, arguments around wage inflexibility raise possibilities of going further. Keynes’s own discussion of labour-market inflexibilities suggests a parallel set of problems of adjustment to those of wage-cutting, accentuated by the asymmetrical

in Keynes and Marx
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Thoreau in the city
Alison Hulme

digital. It is, as admitted in the introduction too, unapologetically idealist, but it is not alone in this. Many current authors engaging with the growing body of literature on the Anthropocene are insisting that it is entirely appropriate at this historical juncture to engage in idealism –​what else, after all, is to be done, when one begins to imagine a new and entirely different future? If there is utopianism at play (although the discerning reader will realise it is hopeful realism in actual fact), it is because at the present historical juncture there is little to

in A brief history of thrift
Philipp Staab

1950 ). The expansion of working people’s rights and entitlements, above all in the heyday of Fordism, is regarded as a further stage in that development; the sociological literature refers to ‘industrial citizenship’ (Marshall 1950 ; Crouch 1998 ) and ‘industrial democracy’ (Müller-Jentsch 2009 ). Ralf Dahrendorf pointed out that having more rights does not necessarily guarantee greater freedom. Any expansion of ‘life chances’, he argues, must combine rights with social ‘ligatures’, understood as ties between

in Markets and power in digital capitalism
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What’s the value of a whale?
Adrienne Buller

, fear, wonder – one of the remaining symbols of the wildly unknown world we occupy. Whales occupy central roles in many Indigenous societies, from the Chukchi people of Chukotka at the North-Eastern tip of Russia to the Bequia of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Cave walls in the Chilean desert bear in brilliant iron-oxide 1,500-year-old drawings of whale hunts. Baleen giants swallow ships whole and evade the harpoons of sailors across the pages of English literature. Every summer, hundreds of whale-watching boats flood the

in The Value of a Whale
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Distraction and dispossession in carbon markets
Adrienne Buller

review of implemented carbon pricing schemes across a range of jurisdictions, academic Jessica Green made the simple observation that although the academic literature on the economics of climate change is heavily populated by papers on carbon pricing, shockingly few actually consider ex post evidence of their effectiveness. As Green documents, since 1990 just 37 studies (among a wider literature comprised of thousands of articles) have analysed the real impacts of carbon pricing schemes, with a majority focusing on the EU

in The Value of a Whale
Clive L. Spash

, and the two are incompatible (Norton and Noonan 2007 ). Imperialism . Economic imperialism means ecological economics is treated as a subfield of orthodox mainstream environmental and resource economics. The Journal of Economic Literature classification system of the American Economic Association relegates ecological economics to being a subfield of neoclassical environmental economics. 2 Attempts are

in Foundations of social ecological economics
Mike Buckle
John Thompson

, suspect but the then economic environment also influenced them. A number of causes have been suggested in the literature, out of which five have attracted the most support: first, the growth of global macro-imbalances; second, inappropriate monetary policy; third, a financial bubble in the US housing market (and the housing market of other economies); fourth, financial market

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
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Bill Dunn

economic variables as either indeterminate or hanging on individual psychology, without identifying how we might get into the heads of the actors. Expectations become important, but we never know ‘why people expect what they expect’ (Schumpeter, cited in Skidelsky 1992 : 577). Keynes occasionally invokes Freud, for example in explaining gold fetishism ( 1923 : 132), but also claims universal psychological laws almost wholly without reference to, or knowledge of, the psychological literature (Hodgson 2004 ). Revisiting Keynes’s categories as more open social

in Keynes and Marx