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The role of pronatalism in the development of Czech childcare and reproductive health policies
Hana Hašková and Radka Dudová

: 18). Specific measures, however, were only taken after 1948 when the Communist Party seized power and especially in the second half of the 1950s. In 1957, the State Population Commission in Czechoslovakia was established to address the problem of low fertility, as the fertility rate had begun to decline. Resolving the problem of insufficient population growth was also intended to tackle the ‘population explosion’ among inhabitants of so-called Gypsy origin (Rákosník and Šustrová 2016 : 142). Alongside these debates, concern was voiced over the degree to which the

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
David Larsson Heidenblad

city some 160 km south-west of Stockholm, with a population of about 140,000) and adopting the association’s first political programme. That happened at the annual meeting in early January when more than a hundred members gathered to socialize, go on excursions, make placards, and attain shared ‘doctrines and values’. The new programme announced that we humans were ‘obliged to preserve our limited natural environment for the sake of future generations’ and that the population explosion had ‘developed into a catastrophe

in The environmental turn in postwar Sweden
Abstract only
S. Karly Kehoe

harvesters in places like Ayrshire and the Lothians and as railway navvies, the growing number deciding to settle in industrial centres like Glasgow and work in industry sparked a fear for the security of the native Scottish labourer. As cities and towns struggled to cope with rapid industrialisation and population explosion and as the Famine took hold in Ireland, the Irish in Scotland came under increasing attack. Famine victims received little sympathy as correspondents from papers such as the Glasgow Herald scolded that ‘it would be well that our poor Irish friends

in Creating a Scottish Church
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The Citizens’ Theatre (Glasgow), 1972, and Northern Broadsides (Halifax), 1995
Carol Chillington Rutter

(furniture, textiles, carpets, cigarettes, explosives) and all the support industries necessary to sustain industrialisation on that scale led to a population explosion in the city's workforce, housed in once-handsome tenements built in areas such as Gorbals that, even before the end of Victoria's reign, were simply overwhelmed. Glasgow took a double economic hit during the recession that followed the Great War and, a decade later, the Great Depression. By the 1930s Gorbals tenements made the housing that Sean O’Casey was writing about in The Plough and the Stars , in

in Antony and Cleopatra
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Panikos Panayi

internment camps. At the end of the twentieth century, scholars such as Klaus Bade, Peter Marschalck and Dirk Hoerder 15 investigated the underlying causes of German migration in the previous century, building upon some of the work which had emerged at the time. 16 The deepest factor consists of the population explosion which took place in nineteenth-century Germany, meaning an

in The Germans in India
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Katy Layton-Jones

, which by late nineteenth-century standards were still embryonic, remained heavily reliant upon close regional trade to feed urban commercial activity.75 Unlike later readings of the urban environment, it was still possible to perceive urban and industrial expansion as complementary to aesthetic beautification as both served to elevate a town’s reputation. Consequently, eighteenth-century aspirations of a marriage between beauty and utility in the townscape characterised early nineteenth-century attitudes to urban development.76 The population explosion and industrial

in Beyond the metropolis
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Al-‘imaara (the building) as topos
Mona Abaza

eradication of the city’s landmarks, of its rich Coptic, Islamic, and European patrimony, of its wonderful old villas and colonial buildings that continue to disappear at a dizzying speed. This has been accompanied by the explosion of informal construction on agrarian land all over the countryside. Soon the entire country will look like a huge conglomerate of ugly, frightening, red cement-brick towers sticking to each other. The population explosion, together with the degradation of the agricultural sector, leaves no option for the rural poor but to convert agrarian land

in Cairo collages
Neil Macmaster

independence by chaos and economic dislocation as a million settlers, who held the key technical, administrative and professional functions, departed. After 1962 the new government, confronted with economic and social disintegration, mass rural–urban flight, high unemployment and a quite staggering population explosion, attempted to resolve the crisis of rural under-development through an agrarian revolution, while oil revenues were invested in a Soviet style industrialisation programme.2 One classic modernisation theory maintains that the global, long-term progress in the

in Burning the veil
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Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

continent’s population; over 70 percent in the post-World War II period. Once at the very center of African identity discussions, issues of racial identity have now been largely subsumed by other factors with some notable exceptions—the Sudan–South Sudan divide for instance. The demise of the role of race as a primary differentiating factor in shaping African identity has been driven by two major trends: 1) The enormous population explosion in sub-Saharan Africa; 2) The end of colonialism, including the demise of apartheid South Africa. In 1970 the population of Africa

in African security in the twenty-first century
From import-substitution industrialization to economic liberalization
Sagarika Dutt

the union budget]?’ (Bagchi, 2005). Populationexplosion’ One of the main characteristics of India as a developing economy is the rate of growth of the population. The total population of India crossed the 1 billion mark in March 2000.2 India has high birth rates and declining death rates, thanks to modern science and improved health facilities.Although birth rates have fallen from 36.9 per thousand in 1971 to 29.5 per thousand in 1991 and 25.8 per thousand in 2002, death rates have fallen even more steeply, from 14.9 per thousand in 1971 to 9.8 per thousand in

in India in a globalized world