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Mark Hampton

Kong was, as Robert Bickers terms it, a ‘backwater’, much less significant to British concerns than Shanghai. 4 Its inter-war population peaked at well under two million; and while this declined to about 600,000 at the end of the war, it had reached two million by 1951 and was nearing four million by 1971. This population explosion was stimulated firstly by the Chinese Civil War (1945–49) and then the subsequent victory by the Communist Party, which created a refugee crisis in the early 1950s. Yet it also resulted from a healthy birth rate; in both 1961 and 1971

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
The role of pronatalism in the development of Czech childcare and reproductive health policies
Hana Hašková and Radka Dudová

: 18). Specific measures, however, were only taken after 1948 when the Communist Party seized power and especially in the second half of the 1950s. In 1957, the State Population Commission in Czechoslovakia was established to address the problem of low fertility, as the fertility rate had begun to decline. Resolving the problem of insufficient population growth was also intended to tackle the ‘population explosion’ among inhabitants of so-called Gypsy origin (Rákosník and Šustrová 2016 : 142). Alongside these debates, concern was voiced over the degree to which the

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Thomas Linehan

-east was particularly marked. The growth of London’s suburban ‘outer ring’ between 1921 and 1931, for example, saw population explosions in numerous districts hitherto partially rural, such as Carshalton by 105.2 per cent, Chingford by 132.6 per cent and Kingsbury by 796.3 per cent, the latter from 1,856 to 16,636. 55 This expansion partly reflected a desire on the part of the middle classes to flee the older parts of town and partly mirrored internal population movements from north to south. To the BUF the suburban phenomenon was wholly objectionable. Neither

in British Fascism 1918-39
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Katy Layton-Jones

, which by late nineteenth-century standards were still embryonic, remained heavily reliant upon close regional trade to feed urban commercial activity.75 Unlike later readings of the urban environment, it was still possible to perceive urban and industrial expansion as complementary to aesthetic beautification as both served to elevate a town’s reputation. Consequently, eighteenth-century aspirations of a marriage between beauty and utility in the townscape characterised early nineteenth-century attitudes to urban development.76 The population explosion and industrial

in Beyond the metropolis
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Al-‘imaara (the building) as topos
Mona Abaza

eradication of the city’s landmarks, of its rich Coptic, Islamic, and European patrimony, of its wonderful old villas and colonial buildings that continue to disappear at a dizzying speed. This has been accompanied by the explosion of informal construction on agrarian land all over the countryside. Soon the entire country will look like a huge conglomerate of ugly, frightening, red cement-brick towers sticking to each other. The population explosion, together with the degradation of the agricultural sector, leaves no option for the rural poor but to convert agrarian land

in Cairo collages
Neil Macmaster

independence by chaos and economic dislocation as a million settlers, who held the key technical, administrative and professional functions, departed. After 1962 the new government, confronted with economic and social disintegration, mass rural–urban flight, high unemployment and a quite staggering population explosion, attempted to resolve the crisis of rural under-development through an agrarian revolution, while oil revenues were invested in a Soviet style industrialisation programme.2 One classic modernisation theory maintains that the global, long-term progress in the

in Burning the veil
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Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

continent’s population; over 70 percent in the post-World War II period. Once at the very center of African identity discussions, issues of racial identity have now been largely subsumed by other factors with some notable exceptions—the Sudan–South Sudan divide for instance. The demise of the role of race as a primary differentiating factor in shaping African identity has been driven by two major trends: 1) The enormous population explosion in sub-Saharan Africa; 2) The end of colonialism, including the demise of apartheid South Africa. In 1970 the population of Africa

in African security in the twenty-first century
David Larsson Heidenblad

, the two women discussed what the West could learn from India. 16 The article about the ongoing population explosion was far more censorious. Soller stressed that India’s population was growing by one million people a month, which she said was an untenable situation. All measures to improve people’s living conditions ‘will be eaten up by the rising excess population’, unless ‘the measures are specifically focused on family planning’. So far, though, all campaigns had been ineffective. Despite the fact that over a million

in The environmental turn in postwar Sweden
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The Citizens’ Theatre (Glasgow), 1972, and Northern Broadsides (Halifax), 1995
Carol Chillington Rutter

(furniture, textiles, carpets, cigarettes, explosives) and all the support industries necessary to sustain industrialisation on that scale led to a population explosion in the city's workforce, housed in once-handsome tenements built in areas such as Gorbals that, even before the end of Victoria's reign, were simply overwhelmed. Glasgow took a double economic hit during the recession that followed the Great War and, a decade later, the Great Depression. By the 1930s Gorbals tenements made the housing that Sean O’Casey was writing about in The Plough and the Stars , in

in Antony and Cleopatra
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Panikos Panayi

internment camps. At the end of the twentieth century, scholars such as Klaus Bade, Peter Marschalck and Dirk Hoerder 15 investigated the underlying causes of German migration in the previous century, building upon some of the work which had emerged at the time. 16 The deepest factor consists of the population explosion which took place in nineteenth-century Germany, meaning an

in The Germans in India