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Barrie Gunter

-faceted. There are cognitive, emotional, social, cultural, and physical components. A child’s ability to process and store information, to interpret their experiences, to relate to other people, and to cope with physical changes that occur as they grow up all come into play at different times and mediate their reactions to brands (Young, 1990; Gunter et al., 2005; McAlister & Cornwell, 2010). It is important for brand marketers, regulators, consumers, and those of us who conduct research into children’s consumerism to understand the nature of these processes and how they work

in Kids and branding in a digital world
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

prices of securities are continuously adjusted to reflect all publicly available information. Many argued that the dominance of the theory created the context in which the financial crisis occurred. The theory influenced market participants, central bankers and regulators alike. Central bankers believed that market prices could be trusted and that bubbles either did not exist or could not be identified before they occurred, or even that they were beneficial for growth. Regulators seemed to accept the need for ‘light touch’ regulation, in which the

in Lehman Brothers
Joe McGrath

6 The new architecture of enforcement Introduction The contemporary architecture of enforcement is significantly different from the traditional architecture that preceded it. From the 1990s, the conventional crime monopoly on corporate deviancy became fragmented. Specialist, interdisciplinary agencies with enhanced powers policed and prosecuted wrongdoing. Furthermore, the exclusive dominance of conventional criminal law faded. Regulators increasingly relied on regulatory criminal law, administrative fines and civil orders to sanction companies and their

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
Open Access (free)
January to September 2008
Oonagh McDonald

banks didn't want bank-type supervision from the Federal Reserve. They wanted to be regulated by the SEC, which had been their functional regulator for 70 years. 20 This does put the position as stated by Erik Sirri, Director of Market Regulation, Securities and Exchange Commission, in a somewhat different light, but does not undermine the basic point that proper regulation of the investment banks did not exist. In his testimony, Sirri pointed out that no regulator in the Federal

in Lehman Brothers
The Third Way and the case of the Private Finance Initiative
Eric Shaw

commodification of service provision. It still upholds a large public sector, but one increasingly permeated by market arrangements and a more commercial ethos. The Third Way prescribes for the State a major role in social life, but less as a direct provider than as purchaser and regulator. It would retain responsibility for guaranteeing access to services free at the point of delivery

in The Third Way and beyond
Mary Chamberlain

outcasts of a standard social system. 2 Of all the problems facing Barbados, race was the most pernicious and intractable. White people dominated the legislative chambers and courtrooms and owned most of the land and the major businesses. Rooted in the history of African slavery, race had become the external marker of status and the internal regulator

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
Bernadette Connaughton

waste collection in a bid to remove rival private operators, Panda and Greenstar Ltd. The judge informed the High Court that if a private company collects waste, they own it and can determine where that waste goes (Kelly, 2009 ). The withdrawal of local authorities from direct service provision in waste in 2011 led to a concentration of firms and also removed the interpretation of a conflict of interest, since local authorities were both regulators and competitors with the private sector. The development of the market to remove local authorities and replace them with

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
The case of New Zealand between the two World Wars
Klaus Nathaus and James Nott

investigates this transformation and argues that it was caused as much by changes in the music and entertainment ecology – for instance, the rise of radio and the growing synergies between dancing and film – as it was the efforts of dance teachers and regulators to keep the public from performing ‘improper’ steps. The first section examines the arrival of jazz and the new and existing spaces provided for public dance. The arrival of jazz contributed to disorder and conflict in the dance halls of the Dominion and was

in Worlds of social dancing
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Joe McGrath

sentencing is being redrawn, they may indicate the beginning of a new culture, one which is more willing to recognise the harm posed by corporate wrongdoing and punish it accordingly. Compliance and sanctioning models of corporate regulation Regulatory agencies like the ODCE have adopted a highly sophisticated, graduated approach to wrongdoing (Appleby, 2010). This model corresponds approximately to the responsive regulatory model advanced by Ayres and Braithwaite (1992) (see Figure 7.1). According to this model, regulators first attempt to educate and persuade people to

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland