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Abstract only
Stephen Penn

insisted that the sacrament was indeed an accident without a substance, and that this position was fully consistent with orthodox ecclesiastical teaching. 5 It could be no coincidence, he must have thought, that the second of his conclusions condemned as heresy there was precisely that an accident could not remain without a substance in the consecrated host ( 46 ). This text also provides one of the clearest articulations of Wyclif’s own position in respect of the Eucharist. Both the bread and the body of Christ are present in the host, he argues here, but the former is

in John Wyclif
Stephen Penn

Wyclif’s views on sacramental theology are difficult to summarise collectively, but much of what he said on the topic was generally concerned with removing a particular sacrament from its ceremonial or accidental trappings, rather than questioning its necessity. The only sacrament about which he expressed some doubt is confirmation, but, even here, it would seem to be its administration at the hands of bishops that is the true target of the doubts he expresses. His beliefs about the process of sacramental change in the eucharist

in John Wyclif
Abstract only
R. N. Swanson

than description. 6 8. Instructions for the laity in preparation for the mass [From T. F. Simmons, ed., The Lay Folks’ Mass Book , Early English Text Society, original ser., LXXI 1879 , pp. 122-7; in English] HERE FOLLOWS A PRECIOUS CONSIDERATION, HOW A MAN SHALL MAKE HIMSELF PURE AND PERFECTLY CLEANSED BEFORE RECEIVING THE SACRAMENT OF THE

in Catholic England
Abstract only
Carmen M. Mangion

-evangelised Catholics.28 Missions encouraged a variety of pious activities including receiving communion, frequent confession, reciting the rosary, following the stations of the cross and attending pilgrimages and processions. Prayer and devotion were encouraged through novenas, benedictions, expositions of the Blessed Sacrament, the Quaran’ Ore and special devotions to the Holy Family or the Sacred Heart. Devotional aids such as scapulars, medals and rosaries were also advocated.29 Missions lasted for days or weeks, and their achievements were heralded by the Catholic faithful. In

in Contested identities
R. N. Swanson

the same. (viii) Church of Charlton [no. 65] Item, that divine service is not held as it ought to be, nor is the sacrament fittingly administered, to the extent that one Stevynsone of the said parish recently died without confession or communion. Item, that the parson does not keep residence or hospitality among his parishioners, and comes but

in Catholic England
Philomena Gorey

The regulation of midwives in the Early Modern period prescribed the moral and social conduct of the midwife, placing far greater emphasis on her character and integrity than on her practice and competence. This was because of the important role that the midwife was assigned in performing the sacrament of baptism during childbirth. When the infant was frail or in danger of dying, it was required that she carry out emergency baptism. In such cases of necessity, regulation in the form of maintaining sacramental

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.


The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89
Elizabeth C. Tingle

-century did not set a good example to their subordinates. Those of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries had been of good quality, frequently resident, diligent and reforming Chap 6 19/6/06 156 9:48 am Page 156 AUTHORITY AND SOCIETY IN NANTES in their administration of the diocese. Thirty sets of synod rulings were published before 1488, ordering clerical residence, participation in sacraments and the keeping of parish registers in an attempt to improve spiritual and sexual morality. Annual visitations were ordered in 1508, although not always observed.17

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
John Spurr

the prescriptions of the church, while others – the majority no doubt – could not manage to receive the sacrament three times a year as the church stipulated nor to attend its fasts and festivals. There is no sign of the wide penumbra of para-liturgical or ‘folk’ practices that we would associate with ‘popular religion’ in contemporary Catholic Europe. Lay commitment to the Church of England is no easier to stratify into

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714