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Abstract only
Irene O'Daly

volition, without the aid of God’s grace. Even if the passions were to be ‘turned to the use of justice’, they would still be dependent on the mercy of God. He concludes by stating that ‘Following Scripture, the initium of wisdom and the finis of humility is fear of God.’ 95 John’s denial of the validity of the Stoic position, unlike Augustine’s, does not rest on a critique of its coherence but on the fact that the Stoics have a misplaced faith in their own capacities. Fear of losing riches, or even of death, does not provide a sound basis for the Stoic to make a

in John of Salisbury and the medieval Roman renaissance
Sally Mayall Brasher

-taught scholar of the scriptures and felt compelled to ‘share’ his beliefs through preaching from his workshop on holy days. While in Rome, Raymond claimed that Jesus came to him and asked him to return to Piacenza, … where you will dress in a garment the colour of the sky that extends down to the middle of your legs, with loose sleeves and hood. You will always carry my cross over your shoulder, executing every act of piety in its name and under its power. You will establish through your own effort a pious place for the

in Hospitals and charity
Priests as neighbours in early medieval local societies
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

based on a Latin biblical text. 19 The sermon presents a peculiar combination of Latin, Romance and tironian notes (a system of shorthand inherited from the Roman world) for both languages. Scholars disagree as to whether this unusual linguistic mixture should be interpreted as a preacher’s working notes or the record of an actual sermon which could be repeated throughout the liturgical year on Rogation days; 20 either case would provide unique evidence of the ways in which a preacher could move from the Latin scriptures to a vernacular explanation of the biblical

in Neighbours and strangers
Janet L. Nelson

under Muslim rule, attacked Alcuin, his theological opponent, in a letter intended for wide circulation: ‘See and beware! Are you not one of those known to have 20,000 serfs: therefore inflated by riches, remember what Scripture says: “Did not God choose poor men in the world, men who were rich in faith?” ’ 34 Having 20,000 servi (and Alcuin didn’t deny it) constituted a moral, hence political, slur that was difficult to rebut. He replied, invoking Gregory, that everything depended on the frame of mind in which a man possessed this world. ‘It is one thing to

in Law, laity and solidarities
Paul Kershaw

entirely to the study of Scripture, and, amid the observance of the discipline of the Rule and the daily task of singing in church, I always found it sweet to learn, or to teach or to write’. 15 When Sedulius came to compose his own six-line verse confessio he offered a self-portrait close to Bede’s own. 16

in Frankland
Defining the boundaries of Carolingian Christianity
Matthew Innes

, adulterous priests and vicious clerics’ who were persecuting Boniface. Boniface’s case is that, although Adalbert’s followers claimed that he was ‘a saintly apostle . . . a patron and intercessor, a doer of good deeds and a worker of miracles’, in fact he was a wolf in sheep’s clothing, whose dress, bearing and behaviour recalled that of the hypocrites in Holy Scripture. Adalbert

in Frankland
Alan Thacker

by 731 the revival of the Gregorian plan or something like it was on its author’s mind, especially as he wrote the later chapters. Clearly, Bede did not admire Berhtwald. He describes him as learned in the scriptures and ecclesiastical discipline, but in no way to be compared with Theodore. 122 His death in 731 is recorded without comment, and his tomb-epitaph is not included, although it was

in Frankland
Abstract only
Deborah Youngs

, repent and counsel others. The Scottish poet Robert Henryson wrote in his ‘In praise of age’ that he would not want to be young again, as ‘the more of age, the nerar hevynnis blis’. 32 Advice offered to the old invariably stressed detachment from the world, meditation on the Scriptures and preparation for death. There should be little distraction: medical authorities linked the cooling of the body with

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
Elisabeth Salter

without misconstrual. It is not therefore a statement against the traditional practices of the established church.59 The preface to the calendar in the ‘new fashion’ also emphasises its intention to increase the knowledge of the reader, this time describing the inclusion of references to Bible readings so that ‘the reader may knowe what scripture the church do use thorow out the yeare, & to study & use the same’.60 The preface in the 1545 manual of prayers and primer (Henry VIII’s Primer), which Salter, Popular reading in English.indd 57 21/05/2012 10:15:04 58

in Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600
Irene O'Daly

medieval monarchical context. 89 The work goes through each of the four cardinal virtues in turn – prudence, fortitude, temperance and justice – and may have been copied in part from a lost De officiis written by Seneca. The king is described as ‘already possessing the sagacity of natural wisdom’, but the prologue concludes with the comment that virtue is not only accessible to the faithful, as this book ‘gives advice which, even without the precepts of the divine Scripture, may be fulfilled under the natural law of human intelligence, even by the laity if they will

in John of Salisbury and the medieval Roman renaissance