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From 1348 to 1350 Europe was devastated by an epidemic that left between a third and one half of the population dead. This book traces, through contemporary writings, the calamitous impact of the Black Death in Europe, with a particular emphasis on its spread across England from 1348 to 1349. It charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effect on the late-medieval economy. Focusing on England, an exceptionally well documented region, the book then offers a wide range of evidence for the plague's variegated repercussions on the economy and, no less complex, on social and religious conduct. It is concerned with the British experience of plague in the fourteenth century. Students of intellectual history will find a wealth of pseudo-scientific explanations of the plague ranging from astrological conjunctions, through earthquakes releasing toxic vapours, to well poisoning by Jews. From narrative accounts, often of heartrending immediacy, the book further proceeds to a variety of contemporary responses, drawn from many parts of Christian Europe. It then explains contemporary claims that the plague had been caused by human agency. The book attempts to explain the plague, which was universally regarded as an expression of divine vengeance for the sins of humankind.

This book presents histories and chronicles written by the Normans themselves, or written by those whom they conquered, or written by contemporaries elsewhere in Europe who observed their actions from afar. It covers the process of assimilation and amalgamation between Scandinavians and Franks and the emergence of Normandy. The swift association of the Scandinavian counts of Rouen with their Frankish noble neighbours is indicative of their wish to settle and root in western France. The book illustrates the internal organisation of the principality with a variety of source material from chronicles, miracle stories and charters. It then presents material from the main chronicle sources for the history of the Norman invasion and settlement of England, supplemented with some poetry. It includes the Normans' involvement in the Mediterranean, in Italy, and to a lesser extent in Byzantium, Spain and the Holy Land. From Normandy they set out later to conquer southern Italy and the greater part of Britain and some established themselves elsewhere in Europe. The book concerns the debate about to what extent the Norman expansion into the Mediterranean was part of an exclusively Norman experience.

Paul Fouracre
and
Richard A. Gerberding

, Foillan, came as a fugitive from East Anglia to take over Fursey’s leadership, something which most likely happened some time during 650 when the actions of Penda could have driven Foillan from Britain. 19 He was at first welcomed by Erchinoald but then, shortly thereafter, as the Additamentum Nivialense tells us, the mayor expelled the Irishman and his followers. 20 Erchinoald’s relationship

in Late Merovingian France
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David Jones

Exempla are plausible stories, drawn from literary sources or from life, which are used to seize the attention of a preacher’s audience and illustrate a moral or theological point, usually by delivering a salutary lesson. 1 This volume presents in translation material from two collections of exempla assembled in the British Isles in the last quarter of the thirteenth

in Friars’ Tales
Martin Heale

late medieval England. They generally offered the recipient the same spiritual benefits on death as a member of the community – although some more important benefactors might be granted fuller forms of commemoration [cf. 35 ] – and seem to have attracted considerable interest among the laity. Translated from British Library, Royal 12 E xiv, fos 37–37v (Latin). 22

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
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Elisabeth van Houts

Pontorson. 1 This region roughly corresponded to the ecclesiastical province of the archbishopric of Rouen, which itself was based on the Roman administrative unit centred on that city. The inhabitants were for the most part Frankish but included a significant minority of Scandinavian settlers from Norway, Denmark and from Scandinavian settlements in Britain, who formed the ruling

in The Normans in Europe
Abstract only
Martin Heale

wealthy Benedictine monastery’s patrons, the Despensers, emphasising the family’s connections with the abbey. Translated (with corrections of transcription from British Library, Cotton MS Cleop. C iii) from W. Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum , ed. J. Caley, H. Ellis and B. Bandinel (London, 1846), II, 59–65 (Latin). In AD 1359 the lady Elizabeth le

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
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Jennifer Ward

. Grant by Hawise, wife of William earl of Gloucester, c. 1150–83; the reference to the gift from her husband probably means that this property formed part of her dower [From W. de G. Birch, ‘Original documents relating to Bristol and the neighbourhood’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association , XXXI, 1875, p. 292; in Latin] Men both present

in Women of the English Nobility and Gentry, 1066-1500
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In search of pre-Reformation English spirituality
R. N. Swanson

miscellany of pieces which could also serve for instruction of the laity, possibly in a less formal format than that set out by Drury. 53 Pictorial representations were also possible, like the extremely complex scheme outlining the efficacy of the sacraments as the remedy to original sin for those willing to act on their demands which is crammed on to two pages of a manuscript now in the British Library. 54

in Catholic England
Paul Fouracre
and
Richard A. Gerberding

for Foillan’s body after his murder. For all these things we must turn to the Additamentum Nivialense de Fuilano , something which we shall do presently. Whether Frankish or Irish, his work nonetheless shows Irish influence, especially in the appearance of St Patrick in chapter 7. He also seems to have been of some standing in the community, since he was sent to Britain on the monastery

in Late Merovingian France