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By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Susan M. Johns

The way that Nest was remembered in the early modern period has much to tell us about the way that Welsh writers conceptualised the past, and this chapter will therefore explore a relatively little examined set of themes in the historiography. It will consider how the critical early years of Norman incursions into Wales were portrayed by later writers and thus discuss the way that later writers conceptualised the Norman past. It will cast reflections on the role of ideas about women, gender and conquest and the place of Nest in a

in Gender, nation and conquest in the high Middle Ages
Between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Letters
Aurélien Girard and Giovanni Pizzorusso

7 The Maronite college in early modern Rome: Between the Ottoman Empire and  the Republic of Letters Aurélien Girard and Giovanni Pizzorusso Introduction The Maronite college, founded by Pope Gregory XIII in 1584, was one of a number of ‘national’ colleges created in Rome in the early modern period.1 It was intended to accommodate young Maronite Christians, who were near-eastern Catholics of the ancient patriarchate of Antioch, and lived in Arabic provinces of the Ottoman Empire, under Islamic jurisdictions. Like other foreign students, they were to receive an

in College communities abroad
Exile, adjustment and experience, 1691–1745
Éamonn Ó Ciardha

2 Irish Jacobites in early modern Europe: exile, adjustment and experience, 1691–1745 Éamonn Ó Ciardha Sustained migration to Europe has characterised Ireland and Britain’s shared histories over the last fifteen hundred years. Close links with the Papacy and Europe’s great universities, religious institutions and organisations, the English Crown’s extensive possessions in France, and a lucrative trade in fish, wine and wool across the Irish Sea and English Channel account for much of this traffic in the medieval period. In the early modern era, the political

in British and Irish diasporas
Alexander Samson

6 Anti-Spanish sentiment in early modern England [A]s long as God shall preserve my master and misstress together, I am and shall be a Spaniard to the uttermost of my power… Henry Neville, earl of Westmorland1 Anti-Spanish sentiment (or ‘English hostility toward the objectionable character of the individual Spaniard’2) has been accorded a central explanatory role in the historiography of Marian England, a period traditionally read in terms of insuperable English hostility to Spain and the Spanish. This Hispanophobia meant, the argument goes, that the reign and

in Mary and Philip
Military health care and the management of manpower
Sebastian Pranghofer

The century after the end of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) is usually characterised as a period of accelerated state formation within the Holy Roman Empire. 1 During this period, the close proximity and imbrication of civil and military medicine reshaped notions of military manpower as one of the key assets of the early modern state. Individual soldiers and their bodies were transformed into populations that could be measured and managed on a large scale. 2

in Accounting for health

This book studies the mother figure in English drama from the mid-sixteenth to the early seventeenth centuries. It explores a range of genres from popular mystery and moral plays to drama written for the court and universities and for the commercial theatres, including history plays, comedies, tragedies, romances and melodrama. Familiar and less-known plays by such diverse dramatists as Udall, Bale, Phillip, Legge, Kyd, Marlowe, Peele, Shakespeare, Middleton, Dekker and Webster are subject to readings that illuminate the narrative value of the mother figure to early modern dramatists. The book explores the typology of the mother figure by examining the ways in which her narrative value in religious, political and literary discourses of the period might impact upon her representation. It addresses a range of contemporary narratives from Reformation and counter-Reformation polemic to midwifery manuals and Mother's Legacies, and from the political rhetoric of Mary I, Elizabeth and James to the reported gallows confessions of mother convicts and the increasingly popular Puritan conduct books. The relations between tradition and change and between typology and narrative are explored through a focus upon the dramatised mother in a series of dramatic narratives that developed out of rapidly shifting social, political and religious conditions.

This book attempts to interrogate the literary, artistic and cultural output of early modern England. Following Constance Classen's view that understandings of the senses, and sensory experience itself, are culturally and historically contingent; it explores the culturally specific role of the senses in textual and aesthetic encounters in England. The book follows Joachim-Ernst Berendt's call for 'a democracy of the senses' in preference to the various sensory hierarchies that have often shaped theory and criticism. It argues that the playhouse itself challenged its audiences' reliance on the evidence of their own eyes, teaching early modern playgoers how to see and how to interpret the validity of the visual. The book offers an essay on each of the five senses, beginning and ending with two senses, taste and smell, that are often overlooked in studies of early modern culture. It investigates Robert Herrick's accounts in Hesperides of how the senses function during sexual pleasure and contact. The book also explores sensory experiences, interrogating textual accounts of the senses at night in writings from the English Renaissance. It offers a picture of early modern thought in which sensory encounters are unstable, suggesting ways in which the senses are influenced by the contexts in which they are experienced: at night, in states of sexual excitement, or even when melancholic. The book looks at the works of art themselves and considers the significance of the senses for early modern subjects attending a play, regarding a painting, and reading a printed volume.

Accounts of the quatorzain in Italy, France and England in the second half of the sixteenth century
Carlo Alberto Girotto, Jean-Charles Monferran, and Rémi Vuillemin

significant late sonnets of the early modern period, those written by Milton, simply ignore the so-called Shakespearean rhyme-scheme. 73 There were sonnets, including quatorzains, well into the seventeenth century, but after the 1630s, the term was used, at least in print, mostly for commendatory poems, for collections of lyrics of varying lengths or even for broadside ballads. 74 If there was a standardisation of

in The early modern English sonnet
Author: Emily Cock

This book explores seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Britain’s experiences with and responses to the surgical reconstruction of the nose, and the concerns and possibilities raised by the idea of ‘nose transplants’ in this period. Challenging histories of plastic surgery that posit a complete disappearance of Gaspare Tagliacozzi’s reconstructive operation after his death in 1599, the book traces the actual extent of this knowledge within the medical community in order to uncover why such a procedure was anathema to early modern British culture. Medical knowledge of Tagliacozzi’s autograft rhinoplasty was overtaken by a spurious story, widely related in contemporary literature, that the nose would be constructed from flesh purchased from a social inferior, and would die with the vendor. The volume therefore explores this narrative in detail for its role in the procedure’s stigmatisation, its engagement with the doctrine of medical sympathy, and its attempt to commoditise living human flesh. Utilising medical research and book histories alongside literary criticism, the project historicises key modern questions about the commodification and limits of the human body, the impact of popular culture on medical practice, and the ethical connotations of bodily modification as response to stigma.