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Sir Wa’ter’s two Books of Mutabilitie and their subject’s allegorical presence in select Spenserean narratives and complaints
James Nohrnberg

’s Gone Abroad to Brute-land, Colin Clout’s Come Courting from the Salvage Ire-land: Exile and the Kingdom in Some of Spenser’s Fictions for “Crossing Over’”, in Edmund Spenser: New and Renewed Directions, ed. J. B. Lethbridge (Teaneck/ Madison, NJ: Fairleigh-Dickinson University Press, 2006), 214–91, bruit the triangulation of Molanna/Bregog–Timias–Ocean–Raleigh with Faunus–Colin–Spenser, and Cynthia–Belphoebe–Elizabeth (or her throne–theatre–court). Background information and documentation for the Irish side of Sir Walter’s corner can be found in Sir John Pope

in Literary and visual Ralegh
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Of letters and the man: Sir Walter Ralegh
Christopher M. Armitage, Thomas Herron, and Julian Lethbridge

in 1650.32 His first published poem commends The Steele Glass (1576) by his fellow soldier-poet George Gascoigne. In it, Ralegh focuses on the envy that accompanies achievement. Ralegh later adopted Gascoigne’s motto Tam marti quam mercutio:33 he personified the soldier of letters: both Mars and Mercury, earthy strife and intellectual exploration and discovery. Edmund Spenser in a dedicatory sonnet appended to The Faerie Queene (1590) notes Ralegh’s title as a ‘right noble and valorous knight’ and ‘lieftenaunt of Cornewaile’ and encourages him to ‘thonder Martiall

in Literary and visual Ralegh
‘Minde on honour fixed’
Author: Jean R. Brink

This revisionary biographical study documents that Spenser was the protégé of a circle of churchmen who expected him to take holy orders, but between 1574, when he left Pembroke College, and 1579, when he published the Shepheardes Calender, he decided against a career in the church. At Pembroke College and in London, Spenser watched the Elizabethan establishment crack down on independent thinking. The sequestration of Edmund Grindal was a watershed event in his early life, as was his encounter with Philip Sidney, the dedicatee of to the Shepheardes Calender. Once Spenser exchanged the role of shepherd-priest for that of shepherd-poet, he understood that his role was not just to celebrate the victories of Protestant England over the Spanish empire, immortalize in verse the virtues of Gloriana’s knights, but also to ‘fashion a noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline’. The received biography of the early Spenser emphasizes Gabriel Harvey, who is reported to have been Spenser’s tutor. Brink shows that Harvey could not have been Spenser’s tutor and argues that Harvey published Familiar Letters (1580) to promote his ambition to be named University Orator at Cambridge. Brink shows that Spenser had already received preferment. His life is contextualized by comparisons with contemporaries including Philip Sidney, Lodowick Bryskett, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Ralegh. Brink’s provocative study, based upon a critical re-evaluation of manuscript and printed sources, emphasizes Philip Sidney over Harvey and shows that Spenser’s appointment as secretary to Lord Grey was a preferment celebrated even years later by Camden.

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Kathleen Miller

from Queen Elizabeth and cultural distance from the polity, and the corresponding shift in usage of the term ‘state’, which went from referring to Ireland’s condition to describing the ‘authority possessed by the lord deputy and council in Ireland’.9 Simultaneously, literary critics have continued to recontextualise well-known authors, such as Edmund Spenser, to generate more historically nuanced readings of canonical texts. Anthologies such as Andrew Carpenter’s groundbreaking Verse in English from Tudor and Stuart Ireland (2003)10 and larger editorial projects such

in Dublin
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John Drakakis

assembled, in part purposefully, and in a creative way a variety of recollected elements of other texts, and memories, a general practice that he shared with a number of dramatists whose work appeared in print during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. But perhaps we need to view this process within a much wider context, imaginatively articulated in Edmund Spenser’s allegorical account of the three rooms of Alma’s ‘stately Turret’ in Book 2 of The Faerie Queene . Sir Guyon and Prince Arthur are offered a conducted

in Shakespeare’s resources
Greene, Sidney, Donne and the evolution of posthumous fame

English literary afterlives covers the Renaissance treatment of the posthumous literary life. It argues for the emergence of biographical reading practices during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as early readers attempted to link the literary output of dead authors to their personal lives. Early modern authors’ complex attitudes to print, and their attempts to ‘fashion’ their own careers through their writings, have been well documented. This study, by contrast, explores how authors and their literary reputations after their deaths were fashioned (and sometimes appropriated) by early modern readers, publishers and printers. It examines the use of biographical prefaces in early modern editions, the fictional presentation of historical poets, pseudo-biography, as well as more conventional modes such as elegy and the exemplary life. By analysing responses to a series of major literary figures after their deaths – Geoffrey Chaucer, Philip Sidney, Robert Greene, Edmund Spenser, John Donne and George Herbert – English literary afterlives charts the pre-history of literary biography in the period and presents a counternarrative to established ideas of authorial emergence through self-fashioning. The book is aimed at scholars and students of the individual authors covered (Sidney, Spenser, Greene, Donne and Herbert), as well as readers interested in book history, reception history, authorship and life-writing.

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Jean R. Brink

Edmund Spenser (1554–99) and Sir Philip Sidney (1554–86) are regarded as the two most important sixteenth-century non-dramatic writers. Among English Renaissance writers, there is a remarkable symmetry of birth dates; Spenser and Sidney were born exactly ten years before Shakespeare and Marlowe (1564) and eighteen years before Donne and Jonson (1572). 1 Except for Sidney, who died in his

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Open Access (free)
A tradition of indirection
Author: Rachel E. Hile

This book examines the satirical poetry of Edmund Spenser and argues for his importance as a model and influence for younger poets writing satires in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The book focuses on reading satirical texts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in relation to one another, with specific attention to the role that Edmund Spenser plays in that literary subsystem. The book connects key Spenserian texts in The Shepheardes Calender and the Complaints volume with poems by a range of authors in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, including Joseph Hall, Thomas Nashe, Tailboys Dymoke, Thomas Middleton, and George Wither to advance the thesis that Spenser was seen by his contemporaries as highly relevant to satire in Elizabethan England. For scholars of satire, the book offers a fuller discussion and theorization of the type of satire that Spenser wrote, “indirect satire,” than has been provided elsewhere. A theory of indirect satire benefits not just Spenser studies, but satire studies as well. For scholars of English Renaissance satire in particular, who have tended to focus on the formal verse satires of the 1590s to the exclusion of attention to more indirect forms such as Spenser’s, this book is a corrective, an invitation to recognize the importance of a style of satire that has received little attention.

Jean R. Brink

Edmund Spenser's contemporaries celebrated him as the greatest non-dramatic poet of his age. His schoolmasters identified him as a brilliant student, and it was this intellectual distinction that financed his education. If he had chosen a career in the church, he could have aspired to, and perhaps achieved, the status of an Elizabethan bishop, as did several of his academic peers at Merchant Taylors’ School and Cambridge

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
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Spenser, Donne, and the trouble of periodization
Yulia Ryzhik

The names Edmund Spenser and John Donne are rarely seen together in a scholarly context, and even more rarely seen together as an isolated pairing. When the two are brought together, it is usually for contrast rather than for comparison, and even the comparisons tend to be static rather than dynamic or relational. Spenser and Donne find themselves on two sides of a rift in English Renaissance studies that separates the sixteenth century from the seventeenth and Elizabethan literature from Jacobean. 1 In the simplest terms, Spenser is

in Spenser and Donne