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Conversation between party and nation
Stephen Ingle

, commentators such as the Duke of Wirtenberg, the German jurist Paul Henzner, the Antwerp merchant van Materen, each writing in the Elizabethan era, had noted this characteristic passion for individual liberty (in Rye, 1865 : 7–8, in Macfarlane, 1978 : 165). And before the advent of Protestantism, the Venetian ambassador to the court of Henry VII also noted the same characteristics, linking independent

in These Englands
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Costume, performance and power in 1953
Lisa Mullen

. Heather Wiebe has argued that the dewigging of the queen in the third act ‘unveiled an uglier reality behind the Coronation’s carefully produced fantasy of the Elizabethan era’: The opera’s peculiar darkness speaks to an ambivalence within the Coronation celebrations about the structures of British – or, to be more precise, English – identity. … It probed a problem at the heart of this construction of identity, faltering at the line between domestic and expansive versions of Englishness. 83

in Mid-century gothic
Versions of the author in contemporary biopics
Kinga Földváry

Gentleman (1935, dir. Widgey R. Newman), Shakespeare meets fellow playwrights Ben Jonson and Michael Drayton in a tavern, where they observe patrons’ resemblance to several Shakespearean characters. 3 Finally, in Time Flies (1944, dir. Walter Forde), three American music hall performers use a newly invented time machine to travel back to the Elizabethan era, where they meet Shakespeare – and incidentally help him to write Romeo and Juliet . 4 In the post-war period, however, the biopic seemed to lose interest in Shakespeare, and we can find nothing until the 1990s

in Cowboy Hamlets and zombie Romeos
Shirley’s and Davenant’s protectorate entertainments
Rachel Willie

entertainment might refer could equally be interpreted as being Elizabethan rather than Caroline. When we consider that some parliamentarians rewrote the Elizabethan era as a period where monarch and parliament governed cohesively (and some who would learn to support republicanism admired Elizabeth), it is possible for the masque to have multiple interpretations.87 Republicans and royalists alike could therefore interpret the pre-civil-war Inca existence in accordance with conflicting ideologies. The prophetic depiction of the New Model Army offering a Protestant salvation

in Staging the revolution
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The impact of Sturges Bourne’s reforms
Samantha A. Shave

by the select vestry of Shipley, which, in the 1820s, decided to stop providing tools to those employed by the parish, except ‘Bars, Malls, and Pikes for Stone digging’.159 These were all measures introduced with the intention of saving the parish money. In particular, the inspection of the poor and attempts to gauge individuals’ character and conduct were illustrative of a more residualist relief system at work. This enabling legislation tended to reinforce the distinction, first developed in the Elizabethan era, between the ‘deserving’ and ‘undeserving’ poor

in Pauper policies
Louise Hill Curth

two aims; to help standardize remedies prepared and dispensed by apothecaries, and for physicians to dictate the only medicines that they were allowed to dispense.39 There were large numbers of apothecaries in both urban and rural areas. In London alone, it is estimated that they had increased eightfold between the end of the Elizabethan era and the beginning of the eighteenth century. Within the city itself, they were mainly concentrated around the central commercial thoroughfares of Fenchurch Street, Bucklersbury and Cheap [sic] and St Paul’s. Many apothecaries

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700
Jean-François Drolet

symbolic essence of his treatise on the sovereign territorial state. Hobbes’s confused choice of biblical creature reflected his blindness to the political passage from land to sea that had been in the process of transforming England since the Elizabethan era. As Schmitt points out, the Hobbesian ideal of the state realised itself on the Continent, mainly in France and in Prussia, but never in England: ‘The English Isle and its world-​conquering seafaring needed no absolute monarchy, no standing land army, no state bureaucracy, no legal system of a law state such as

in American foreign policy
Bryan Fanning

folk traditions or represented in the plays of the Elizabethan era.2 Deasy, who considered that there were no Jews in Ireland, most certainly knew no Jews. His anti-Semitism was ideological rather than empirical. The anti-Semitism which found expression in Irish immigration practices from the 1930s to the 1950s was similarly grounded in prevalent racialisations and stereotypes. Immigration policy goals of keeping Jews out of Ireland can be understood as a response to an imagined Jewish problem rather than the consequence of some ‘rational’ calculation that the Jews

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

, kidney transplantation and the discovery of DNA’s helical structure. These successful projects involved no external planning and were all ‘developed through the single-minded efforts of a few dedicated individual scientists and doctors’.89 At a time when professions were highly regarded, this research further increased public confidence in science and medicine.90 Celebratory media coverage portrayed doctors and scientists as pioneering figures who were central to a ‘new Elizabethan era’ of progress and discovery.91 When ‘science and expertise were synonymous’, both in

in The making of British bioethics
The Archpriest controversy and the issue of the succession
Peter Lake and Michael Questier

a mere pretence, one that ‘tendeth to the increasing, and not diminishing, of the popish party’. Lamenting current attempts to cosy up to Catholic priests while the state’s greatest supporters, the Puritans, were kept down, the tract muttered darkly about the presence near the centre of power of a crypto-Catholic fifth column, while harking back to the antipapal solidarities of the high Elizabethan era, when big beasts like Leicester and Burghley had roamed the land.58 The tract both got the attention of the regime and provoked further responses from various

in Doubtful and dangerous