The British empire was actually an amalgam of Irish, Scottish, Welsh and English empires. Punjab, 'the pride of British India', attracted the cream of the Indian Civil Service (ICS), many of the most influential of whom were Irish. Some of these men, along with Irish viceroys, were inspired by their Irish backgrounds to ensure security of tenure for the Punjabi peasant, besides developing vast irrigation schemes which resulted in the province becoming India's most affluent. This book aims to ascertain whether backgrounds of Irish public servants in Punjab, and that of Irish viceroys in dealing with Punjab affairs, engendered attitudes which were so different. The nub of the matter is whether an Irish background influenced public servants in their duties, whether or not they thought themselves primarily as British or Irish. The first part of the book deals with three Indian public services: the ICS, the Indian Medical Service (IMS) and the Indian Public Works Department (PWD). The social, religious, ethnic and educational backgrounds of Irish recruits these services and the reasons behind the remarkable increase in Irish recruitment are then discussed. British and Irish public servants influenced domestic Indian politics, especially in the admission of Indians to the very services dominated by the British. Perhaps the long-term but impermanent commitment of Irish people to the furtherance of British colonial aims merits a more apt designation, one perhaps less pejorative than 'collaborator'. Twentieth-century contemporaries made connections between north-west India and Northern Ireland by dubbing Punjab the 'Ulster of India'.
Chocolate remains a mythic product, a symbol both of luxury and of a fantasy world of exoticism, yet also (for many) a workaday requirement providing energy and nutrition. This book concentrates on three key stages of chocolate production in the British empire: growing cocoa beans, manufacturing chocolate from these beans, and the marketing of chocolate products. It begins with the romantic construction of chocolate, redresses the gender imbalance of many existing Rowntree histories and values women's own interpretations of their working lives. The analysis of advertising establishes connections and tensions between the worlds of production and consumption, with an attention to gender and class, and to cultural characteristics. The book tackles imperial histories of chocolate and how British firms, including Rowntree, constructed their own romantic narratives of the 'discovery' and development of chocolate production. It focuses on Nigerian women farmers who have always been active agents in cocoa production, despite having to struggle against the often intersecting structures and ideologies of colonialism, capitalism and patriarchy. The book explores the ways in which Rowntree created and reflected particular understandings of the historic city of York and of empire, through media such as their in-house journal, 'Cocoa Works Magazine'. It provides the oral histories of women factory workers, including that of a Chinese girl, and their experiences of gendered and raced labour in chocolate manufacture.
Museums were an expression of the western conviction in the onward march of the rational. Local civilisations were also the prime focus in other Asian imperial museums. This is the first book that examines the origins and development of museums in six major regions if the British Empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It analyses museum histories in thirteen major centres in Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, India and South-East Asia, setting them into the economic and social contexts of the cities and colonies in which they were located. Museums in Canada have a longer, though somewhat chequered, history than elsewhere in the British Empire. The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) in Toronto and the Royal British Columbia museum in Victoria were two notable, yet very different, expressions of imperial expansiveness . The book then overviews two representative museums: the South African Museum (SAM) in Cape Town and the Albany Museum in Grahamstown. The origins and development of the National Museum of Victoria (NMV) in Melbourne, South Australian Museum (SAuM) and Australian Museum (AM) are then discussed. New Zealand/Aotearoa, with its Canterbury Museum and War Memorial Museum, has discrete origins as a colony in the nineteenth century. Imperial museums in Asia were unquestionably distinctive compared with those of the territories of white settlement. A number of key themes emerge: the development of elites within colonial towns; the emergence of the full range of cultural institutions associated with this; and the modification of the key scientific ideas of the age.
This book offers a ground-breaking perspective on how imperial culture was disseminated. It draws on a consistent set of themes that influenced urban life between 1870 and 1939, in addressing the impact of imperialism on popular culture of the British society. The book identifies the important synergies that grew between a new civic culture and the wider imperial project. It explores the local and imperial nexus and whether imperial wars in the far reaches of the British Empire were translated into tangible localised issues. The book examines the role of volunteerism, patriotism and citizen-soldier relationships through two important conflicts, the Boer War and First World War. Drawing on a rich seam of primary sources from Portsmouth, Coventry and Leeds, case studies are considered against an extensive analysis of seminal and current historiography. The evidence drawn suggests that differing social, political and cultural contexts helped determine both a community's civic identity and, significantly, its engagement with national and imperial perspectives. University and religious settlements such as the High Anglican Oxford House, Toynbee Hall and the Oxford House Movement run by Anglo-Catholic slum priests exposed men to a life of service towards their imperial mission. The schooling experience of working-class children in these cities focused on curriculum, physical exercise, and extra-curricular activities. The ebb and flow of imperial enthusiasm was shaped through a fusion of local patriotism and a broader imperial identity. Imperial culture was neither generic nor unimportant but was instead multi-layered and recast to capture the concerns of a locality.
Between 1803 and 1853, some 80,000 convicts were transported to settle in Van Diemen's Land, today's Tasmania, Australia. The book explores the attempts to construct a hierarchical and gendered social order in the new settlements. An attachment to the patriarchal familial ideal as a model of authority, and to the notion of the male convict-turned-virtuous-yeoman-farmer which went with it, was evident in the settlements. The book examines the ways similar tensions began systematically to rework the relationships between state and society during the 1810s and early 1820s. Initially, convicts were channelled into their own households and encouraged to marry and rear families. Subsequently, convicts were systematically re-ordered as a coerced colonial labour force and redirected from their own households into the homes of free settlers, there to work without wages. The shift to greater servitude was accompanied by the forcible and fairly systematic reconfiguration of the convict private sphere. Although the population was 'entirely British', it was entirely 'un-British in social and civilised spirit and in moral feeling and character'. Convict transportation had enabled 'the English' to create 'from their own loins a nation of Cyprians and Turks'. Organic and familial visions were fundamental to the conceptual schemes of the Colonial Reformers, a group dedicated to the reform of the empire and to the restructuring of imperial relations. During the 1840s and 1850s, a home-grown abolitionist movement raised the spectre of the sexual addiction of male convicts, fostering a major moral panic about the threat of sodomy and child rape.
This collection of essays reappraises the origins and nature of the first British empire. Produced in the wake of protracted and sometimes divisive debates about how best to approach this topic, methodologically and thematically, and in the wake of the so-called ‘cultural turn’, it offers new perspectives and approaches, from some of the most important scholars working in the field, both senior and junior. This is not a matter of returning to older modes of scholarship but rather of learning from the ‘new imperial history’ while also re-integrating political and institutional perspectives. It is not a matter of turning from the experience of empire on the periphery to the study of the ‘official’ mind of empire, but rather of exploring contemporary debates, both within the metropole and across the empire, and how these impacted upon imperial ‘policy’ and its implementation, not least in the face of fairly profound challenges on the ground. These debates ranged widely, and were political and intellectual as well as religious and administrative, and they related to ideas about political economy, about legal geography and about sovereignty, as well as about the messy realities of the imperial project, including the costs and losses of empire, collectively and individually. This book will be of interest to historians and political scientists working in a range of different areas, far beyond merely scholars of empire, and its novel approaches and provocative arguments will help to shape the field on this most important of topics.
Dame Emma Albani, Dame Nellie Melba, Dame Clara Butt
Contemporaries never tired of
stressing the extraordinary diversity of the Empire. Disraeli in 1878
said of the Empire:
No Caesar or Charlemagne
ever presided over a dominion so peculiar. Its flag floats on
many waters; it has provinces in every zone, they are inhabited
by persons of
This book explores the history of postwar England during the end of empire through a reading of novels which appeared at the time. Several genres are discussed, including the family saga, travel writing, detective fiction and popular romances. In the mid 1950s, Montagu Slater's brief essay in Arena is the first of a group of contributions, with the authors' warning of a growing American monopoly in cultural expression. Agatha Christie, Dorothy L. Sayers and Josephine Tey are now the best remembered representatives of the distaff side of Britain's Golden Age of crime fiction which extended well into the early postwar period. The book focuses on the reception of John Masters' novels, the sequence of novels known as the 'Savage family saga'. William Golding's 'human condition' is very much an English condition, diagnosed amid the historical upheavals of the mid-twentieth century. Popular romance novels were read by thousands throughout Britain and across the world, and can be understood as a constituent element in a postwar colonial discourse. William Boyd's fiction displays a marked alertness to the repercussions of fading imperial grandeur; his A Good Man in Africa, explores the comic possibilities of Kinjanja, a fictional country based on Nigeria. Penelope Lively's tangential approach to writing about empire in Moon Tiger suggests ambivalence and uncertainty about how to represent a colonial past which is both recent and firmly entrenched in ideas of national identity.
Party politics, Spanish America and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
had achieved little despite the famous victories at Blenheim, Ramillies, and Malplaquet. 3 Why did the Whigs believe British imperial interests had been betrayed at the Treaty of Utrecht? Why did they think that a peace that had given the British Gibraltar, Minorca, Nova Scotia, St Kitts and the lucrative Asiento – the exclusive right to sell slaves to the Spanish empire – was an imperial disaster? What is the larger significance of this vitriolic debate for our understanding of the nature and contours of the British empire?
Unfortunately the existing scholarship
Time would show that by virtue of
his work for British aviation generally, and Empire aviation in
particular, it was a masterstroke choosing Sefton Brancker to succeed
Sykes. The person who had been fiercely critical of British aviation at
the 1922 Air Conference had not been shut out, nor had he been shut up.
Now he had to put up.
Brancker was forty-six years old at the