Postmodern Era (Berkeley CA: University of
California Press, 1991 ), 64–8. For the Dutch East Indies comparison
see Gouda, ‘Nyonyas’ , 327–36.
Regarding the British Empire see Ronald
Hyam, EmpireandSexuality. The British Experience
(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990); and his
Officers and Men , Harmondsworth,
1976: Charles alien, Plain Tales from the Raj , 1975: Clayton
and Killingray, Khaki and Blue; Ronald Hyam, EmpireandSexuality: the British Experience , Manchester, 1990.
According to Younghusband, life reflected art:
troops began to use expressions Kipling had put into the mouth of
Imperialism (New York, 1986 ), 18.
Ronald Hyam, EmpireandSexuality: The British
Experience (Manchester, 1990 ).
John Tosh, ‘Imperial Masculinity and the Flight
from Domesticity in Britain 1880–1914’ , in
Timothy P. Foley et al . (eds
though uncritically, in EmpireandSexuality: The British
Experience (Manchester, Manchester University Press,
1992). Sinha’s Colonial Masculinity is another
critical and rich exposition on this construction of the
‘native’ (male) as a sexual colonial subject.
Papers , p. 424, pt. 2
White women, race and imperial politics in inter-war Britain
-century respectability and rich ‘emancipated
women’ could flaunt convention through engaging in unpopular
political causes: the ultimate act of rebellion was to
‘consort’ with black men. This was used to discredit
certain women and the causes they championed. Despite class and
political differences, women activists were all affected by the
shifting discourses on race, empireandsexuality
Cultures of male servitude in the tropics, 1880s–1910s
”’, p. 620.
Ronald Hyam, EmpireandSexuality: The
British Experience (Manchester: Manchester University Press,
1992 ), p. 73; John Tosh, Manliness and
Masculinities in Nineteenth Century Britain: Essays on Gender,
Family and Empire (New York: Pearson Longman, 2005), pp.
The politics of Chinese domestic mastery, 1920s–1930s
brought to Singapore to work in the brothels. It is conceivable that
they were recruited for domestic service as well. Maurice Freedman,
Chinese Family and Marriage in Singapore (London: Her
Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1957 ), p.
28; Constable, Maid to Order in Hong Kong , pp. 2, 46; Ronald
Hyam, EmpireandSexuality: The British Experience
See Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, No Man’s
Land , 2 vols., New Haven, 1986 , Vol. 2, pp. 40–50;
Primitive , pp. 151–6 passim .
Cecil Rhodes was the epitome of this type: see
Ronald Hyam, EmpireandSexuality , Manchester, 1990
Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Madison: University of
Wisconsin Press, 1989 ).
See Note 4 above.
See, for example, R. Hyam, EmpireandSexuality: The British Experience (Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 1992