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Timothy Longman

journalists and opposition politicians and violent attacks against Tutsi. In January 1993, both Human Rights Watch (HRW) and the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) participated in a ten-member panel of international experts that investigated human rights abuses in Rwanda and published a devastating report that linked the government to all recent cases of anti-Tutsi ethnic violence and considered, given their nature, whether they might constitute genocide, though they suggested that the numbers killed might not reach the threshold to be labelled genocide

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

public relations experts contributed to campaigning. It also commissioned G. H. Mewes, a Danish filmmaker and former photographic correspondent for the Daily Mirror in Russia, to make the film Famine: A Glimpse of the Misery in the Province of Saratov . 2 Mewes was sent there in winter 1921 and recorded several sequences showing the extreme misery in Saratov, with abandoned shanty towns and the exodus on wagons pulled by camels, starving children in rags, distribution of food, and dead corpses in the Buzuluk cemetery. Although the most notorious SCF film, it was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

propelled and bolstered aid during the war had not dissipated – at least not immediately – with its end. Before the war’s end, H. D. Gibson, chairman of the American Red Cross Commission to Europe, declared the needs in Europe to be ‘unlimited’ and organized a Special Survey mission ‘to have a scientifically studied picture of the comparative necessities of the various countries in the lines of work which we have been engaged’ (Gibson, in Kaplan, 1988 : 67). 12 Lewis Hine was invited to be the photographer on this team comprised of epidemiologists, nutrition experts

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

’. Ekzayez , A. and Thompson , R. ( 2018 ), ‘ Assad Has Learned That Chemical Attacks Are a Tactic That Works ’, Chatham House , 13 April . www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/assad-has-learned-chemical-attacks-are-tactic-works (accessed 5 February 2016 ). Elamein , M. , Bower , H. , Valderrama , C. et al. ( 2017 ), ‘ Attacks against Health Care in Syria, 2015–16: Results from a Real-Time Reporting Tool ’, The Lancet , 390 : 10109 , 2278 – 86 , doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31328-4 . Ensor , J. ( 2019 ), ‘ Syria and Russia Bomb Hospitals in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

, M. W. ( 2006 ), ‘ Best Practices in Crisis Communication: An Expert Panel Process ’, Journal of Applied Communication Research , 34 : 3 , 232 – 44 . Sellnow , T. L. and Seeger , M.W. ( 2013 ), Theorizing Crisis Communication ( Chichester

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

, development, deployment and integration across social fields. Among these are stakeholder groups (such as regulators, civil society representatives, designers, data scientists, tech entrepreneurs and experts in cybersecurity, intellectual property and data-protection law) with differing priorities, values and skillsets, and consequently different approaches to datafication. In the context of fashion, Wissinger (2018: 779) notes that her interviews reveal that ‘a laissez

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

, H. ( 2019 ), Ignoring Male Victims of Sexual Violence in Conflict Is Short-Sighted and Wrong , Chatham House , 10 January , www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/ignoring-male-victims-sexual-violence-conflict-short-sighted-and-wrong (accessed 18 July 2020 ). Gray , H. and Stern

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Experts and the development of the British Caribbean, 1940–62
Author: Sabine Clarke

This book produces a major rethinking of the history of development after 1940 through an exploration of Britain’s ambitions for industrialisation in its Caribbean colonies. Industrial development is a neglected topic in histories of the British Colonial Empire, and we know very little of plans for Britain’s Caribbean colonies in general in the late colonial period, despite the role played by riots in the region in prompting an increase in development spending. This account shows the importance of knowledge and expertise in the promotion of a model of Caribbean development that is best described as liberal rather than state-centred and authoritarian. It explores how the post-war period saw an attempt by the Colonial Office to revive Caribbean economies by transforming cane sugar from a low-value foodstuff into a lucrative starting compound for making fuels, plastics and medical products. In addition, it shows that as Caribbean territories moved towards independence and America sought to shape the future of the region, scientific and economic advice became a key strategy for the maintenance of British control of the West Indian colonies. Britain needed to counter attempts by American-backed experts to promote a very different approach to industrial development after 1945 informed by the priorities of US foreign policy.

Philosophical lessons from lockdown

French philosopher Michel de Montaigne (1533–92) famously said that facing our mortality is the only way to properly learn the ‘art of living’. He was right. This book is about what we can learn from COVID-19 about the art of living, as individuals but also collectively as a society: this crisis could potentially change our lives for the better, ushering in a more just society. The book will explore a number of key themes through philosophical lenses. Chapter 2 asks whether coronavirus is a misfortune, or an injustice. Chapter 3 focuses on the largest cohort of victims of coronavirus: people in old age. Chapter 4 asks whether life under coronavirus is comparable to life in the so-called ‘state of nature’. Chapter 5 explores the likely impact of coronavirus on the global phenomenon of populism. Chapter 6 investigates the relationship between post-truth and coronavirus. Chapter 7 focuses on the role of experts during this crisis. Chapter 8 looks at the spike of incidents of domestic violence during the lockdown via an analysis of Sally Rooney’s Normal People. Chapter 9 explores four key lessons that must be learned from the COVID-19 crisis: that politics matters; that central states are necessary; that taxation is important; and that radical reforms, including the introduction of a universal basic income, are crucial. Chapter 10 considers what philosophy can contribute to the debate on COVID-19, and why we have a moral duty not to become ill.

Abstract only
The perils of leaving economics to the experts

One hundred years ago the idea of ‘the economy’ didn’t exist. Now, improving ‘the economy’ has come to be seen as one of the most important tasks facing modern societies. Politics and policymaking are increasingly conducted in the language of economics and economic logic increasingly frames how political problems are defined and addressed. The result is that crucial societal functions are outsourced to economic experts. The econocracy is about how this particular way of thinking about economies and economics has come to dominate many modern societies and its damaging consequences. We have put experts in charge but those experts are not fit for purpose.

A growing movement is arguing that we should redefine the relationship between society and economics. Across the world, students, the economists of the future, are rebelling against their education. From three members of this movement comes a book that tries to open up the black box of economic decision making to public scrutiny. We show how a particular form of economics has come to dominate in universities across the UK and has thus shaped our understanding of the economy. We document the weaknesses of this form of economics and how it has failed to address many important issues such as financial stability, environmental sustainability and inequality; and we set out a vision for how we can bring economic discussion and decision making back into the public sphere to ensure the societies of the future can flourish.