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Tom Whittaker

accommodate this rapid influx of migrants, many of them had no other choice than to live in shanty towns and illegal settlements on the edges of the city, areas of social exclusion that became breeding grounds for petty crime. Attempts by the Franco regime at mitigating the burgeoning housing crisis frequently made matters worse. In a phenomenon known as ‘chabolismo vertical’ (vertical shanty towns), migrants were rehoused in Unidades Vecinales de Absorción (UVAs), multi-storey tower blocks that were as poorly constructed as they were densely stacked. Too often

in The Spanish quinqui film
A historical overview, 1879–1982
Paul Kennedy

old guard rejected all efforts launched by Socialist activists within Spain to pursue a process of revitalisation within the party. Retaining a suspicion of the Communists which lasted throughout the Francoist dictatorship, there was no question of mounting joint operations with the PCE against the Franco regime, despite the fact that the Communists’ internal structures allowed them to pursue a far more effective clandestine existence than the Socialists. The party’s tenuous presence within Spain exacerbated this failing. Joaquín Arango, who was a Minister under

in The Spanish Socialist Party and the modernisation of Spain
Spanish rhetorics of empire from the 1950s to the 1970s
Andreas Stucki

simplified and manipulative appropriation of lusotropicalism and stressed the harmony of Portugal’s presence in Africa. One of the strategies for adapting to the growing anti-colonial tide was the rebranding of the colonies as overseas provinces (1951). In this renewed discourse, Portugal was again presented as an indivisible, multi-continental nation. 6 The Spanish Franco regime followed the Portuguese

in Rhetorics of empire
Carmen Ciller

schools in Spain 115 the sensual foreigner, which was so popular in the Spanish films of the Franco regime, is expanded here, and confirmed when Mario explains to Pepe that Barbara ‘en la cama funciona estupendamente’ [she works perfectly under the sheets], as if to explain why he still loves her despite her being so extravagant. It must be remarked that Barbara speaks with an accent that is clearly foreign. Everything in Barbara is presented as different to the traditions Spaniards are used to, including the fact that she has her own business and does not need her

in Performance and Spanish film
Sarah Wright

celebration of child death. In this film, the death of a child is not purported to be the tragedy that is feared by the parents of the sick girl in the story that frames the narrative proper, but rather, ‘a triumphant experience for the individual and an affirmation for the community’ (Avery and Reynolds, 2000: 7). Marcelino’s miraculous tale survives through the generations, drawing the community together (even if, as the narrator informs us, the locals have forgotten the reason for their festivities). The Franco regime loved to institute commemorations, as ‘a way to

in The child in Spanish cinema
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Through feminine eyes
Parvati Nair and Julián Daniel Gutiérrez-Albilla

totalitarian regimes and repressive military dictatorships. Although it is important to emphasise that these repressive military regimes, such as the Franco regime, changed dramatically over their years of rule, under totalitarian regimes or military dictatorships almost no single physical or symbolic space can escape their omnipotence. For instance, right until the death of Franco in 1975, one could neither criticise the Catholic

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Tom Whittaker

1980 and released in Spain in May 1981, Deprisa, deprisa signalled both a rupture from Carlos Saura's filmmaking of the 1960s and 1970s, which was known for its metaphorical critiques of the Franco regime, as well as a return to the theme of delinquency of his cinematic debut Los golfos (1960). The film was a co-production between his regular producer Elías Querejeta Producciones and the French production company Films Molière (with the latter also having co-production credits on his more recent films Los ojos vendados/Blindfolded Eyes (1976) and Mamá cumple

in The Spanish quinqui film
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Embodiment and adolescence in recent Spanish films
Sarah Wright

’s 1963 experimental Se necesita chico (Boy Wanted) used the sounds of jazz to recreate a child’s world in 1960s Spain.8 But if Se necesita chico seems like experimentation with film form and the child’s experience for its own sake, in Del rosa al amarillo the child’s world is drawn for us to reveal the ideologies fed to children during the Franco regime. The film makes use of various intertexts from the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s such as the imagery of the religious Crusade and patriotic fervour of the comic Guerrero del Antifaz which Guillermo uses to punctuate his

in The child in Spanish cinema
Setting the stage for a regional political class
Klaus Stolz

Catalan language. All this, however, failed to extinguish Catalan national identity and demands for political self-government. Instead, the movement to rebuild the Generalitat had begun long before the end of the Franco regime. Resistance to the regime came from different directions and in various organisational forms. While the leading party of Catalanism during the second republic – the republican left Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) – remained confined to sporadic initiatives from exile, cultural and political catalanism on the ground was concentrated in the

in Towards a regional political class?
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Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

. Ysàs Solanes, ‘Workers and dictatorship: Industrial growth, social control and labour protest under the Franco regime, 1939–76’, in A. Smith (ed.) Red Barcelona: Social Protest and Labour Mobilization in the Twentieth Century , London, Routledge, 2002, 185–205; J. M. Maravall, Dictatorship and Political Dissent. Workers & Students in Franco's Spain . London: Tavistock, 1978. 30 Boletín informativo núm. I

in Counter-terror by proxy