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Les Misérables, La Rafle and Elle s’appelait Sarah

French identity during the Second World War was commemorated. The challenge to the previously dominant myth of universal French resistance was the factual presence of French collaboration at almost every societal level. Not until December 2014 was there an exhibition dealing exclusively with French complicity at the National Archives, La Collaboration (1940–45). The exhibition's curator, Denis Peschanski, highlighted that: ‘La collaboration fait maintenant partie de notre

in Reframing remembrance
Franziska Zaugg and Yaacov Falkov

behind German lines, but it was far from being simply a national movement. The PCI commanded a transnational struggle which involved both veterans of the International Brigades and Yugoslav POWs who were able to escape from their camps and prisons to join the fight. Italian members of the International Brigades had for some time been fighting alongside the French Resistance, but now started to move back illegally to Italy, often on the orders of the PCI. On 8 September 1943 the communist leader Antonio Roasio instructed Francesco Scotti, a veteran of the International

in Fighters across frontiers
Warsaw, Paris, Slovakia
Laurent Douzou, Yaacov Falkov, and Vít Smetana

as movements of national resistance and liberation: the triumph of the French Resistance and the Free French, the Polish national uprising and the Slovak national uprising. These narratives were required to overcome national traumas of defeat, occupation, partition and collaboration. By rising up the nations redeemed themselves and threw off the shame and guilt of their recent pasts. These national myths, defensible though they were in political terms, conceal the fact that the uprisings were far from purely national: they were international, multinational and

in Fighters across frontiers
Relationships and issues, 1941–45
Andrew Williams

Frenchman had felt able to face up to Hitler in the 1930s (any more than most of the British): ‘If rulers and ruled had possessed the courage to say merde to Hitler before 1939 the story would have had a very different ending.’5 Only General Charles de Gaulle so dared in 1940 and, although hardly anyone noticed at the time (his BBC broadcast of June 1940 was not even recorded), he went on to symbolise France’s revival in exile. The relationship of the main symbol of French resistance with the British and Americans was famously difficult, both before and after the

in Failed imagination?
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Screening French literature
Homer B. Pettey and R. Barton Palmer

II resistance fighters against Vichy, coming after the radical shift in politics of May 1968. French art historian Rose Valland documented in Le Front de l’art (1961) the extraordinarily dangerous subterfuge of railway and French resistance fighters and their eventual reclamation from the Nazis of the modernist masterpieces, which John Frankenheimer filmed as an astonishing action film that involved the actual collision of real locomotives in The Train (1964). The release of adaptations of classical and popular French literature has continued since the late 1960s

in French literature on screen
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Lindsay Aqui

market prices, rather than the more rigid system guaranteed by the Community. This, he argued, would both guarantee suitably high prices and protect consumers, at a cost to the Exchequer of £22 million. Peart could only gain the Commission’s agreement to operate a scheme of deficiency payments to subsidise beef producers for one year, as a temporary measure, while a long-term solution was studied. This was because of French resistance to the introduction of a system of national intervention. 51 In February Peart secured an additional concession: agreement to a new

in The first referendum
Affaires publiques, Les Anges du péché and Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne
Keith Reader

Jean: ‘Vous avez épousé une grue’. 29 Agnès, who has a weak heart, has three fainting fits. Jean arrives at her bedside, declares his love and pleads with her to stay. The film ends on her words: ‘Je reste’. 30 Godard, in a characteristically coat-trailing gesture, invoked her previous line, ‘Je lutte’, 31 to claim that Les Dames was ‘the “only” film of the French Resistance’ (Rosenbaum 1998 : 22), bestowing upon it an

in Robert Bresson
Some conclusions
Robin Derricourt

people. Christian visionaries, when accepted by the authorities, may become saints, while those not so accepted are historically condemned as heretics. The Maid of Orleans, Jeanne d’Arc (Joan of Arc, 1412–1431), stated that her visions and messages from angels and saints began when she was 13; French royal support led her to play a pivotal role in French resistance to the English during the Hundred Years War, before English-backed authorities had her burned for heresy. But the Maid of Kent, Elizabeth Barton (1506–1534), whose public prophesying began at the age of 19

in Creating God
Open Access (free)
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

various victim groups of irredentist conflicts, anti-​Semitic persecution and repression against Resistance fighters to Nazi occupation have brought into play a vast palette of rituals that are not always primari­ly religious in character, but always eminently political, in a context in which the inscription of corpses within a framework of identity is crucial in justifying the region’s political and national affiliation. Similar issues are addressed in the chapter by Devlin M.  Scofield, which examines the transfer of the remains of eleven members of the French

in Human remains in society
Steven Earnshaw

’s novel The Blood of Others. In this novel, set in the time of the Second World War and the French Resistance, Hélène is dying and her lover Jean Blomart worries that it is his fault for bringing her into the fight. She insists that they have existed, do exist, on equal terms, that this life is Hélène’s chosen life. This sense of equality and authenticity (or the striving for authenticity) is also present in Paradise, the sense that Hannah and Robert are equal partners in drinking. This is not to ignore the fact Robert and Hannah do on occasion attempt to quit drinking

in The Existential drinker