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Tom Gallagher

imposing a new ‘Fourth Reich’, indicated that many no longer believed that, within a eurozone where key financial decisions were made by the European Central Bank (ECB), their country enjoyed meaningful independence. One group of protesters sat atop a jeep dressed in Nazi uniforms, while another, clutching the Greek flag, lay underneath the wheels of the vehicle. 3 By contrast, when Merkel’s predecessor, Konrad Adenauer, had paid an official visit to Athens in 1954, only a decade after the wartime German occupation, he had been greeted as a friendly head of state

in Europe’s path to crisis
Joseph Heller

) terrorist campaign. 43 In addition, Kosygin visited Cairo in May (10–19), where he said that a certain country possessed nuclear arms and declared his support for the Palestinian people’s struggle for their rights. 44 The principal Soviet concern was the United States’ intention to deploy nuclear weapons in German territory, which the Soviet Union connected with ex-Chancellor Konrad Adenauer’s visit

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Joseph Heller

Soviet claim that it was sending the Arabs the message that Israel was a fait accompli they had to take into account and that they should stop talking about destroying it because the Soviets would not permit it. Israel, therefore, rejected the Soviet demand for cooperation, especially regarding West Germany, which was a true friend to Israel. Ben-Gurion met with Konrad Adenauer, postwar chancellor of

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Pat Cox

a point of departure, in particular his reference to creative reconciliation. In Western Europe after the Second World War, there were people who had the courage to look at the big picture. People like Konrad Adenauer, Robert Schuman, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak, de Gasperi and others who took the time and who had the leadership, the will and the political and personal determination to think long, think wide and to think big. They did not become lost in the micro petty details but rose above the ashes of that war, seeing hope where there was despair, opportunity

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Open Access (free)
The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

a common market on economic grounds. He preferred a free trade area in which German industry would flourish. It was Konrad Adenauer who persuaded Erhard to acquiesce in the arrangements for a common market. Adenauer’s main aim was to achieve a reconciliation between West Germany and its west European neighbours; France was crucial to this. Adenauer, just as with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Defence Community, was determined to continue his west-oriented policy of embedding the Federal Republic in Western Europe. Very similar reasoning

in Destination Europe
Niilo Kauppi

Communities to reject de Gaulle's plans. As a result of his talks with German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in 1958, de Gaulle understood that an institutionalisation of the bilateral interaction between France and Germany was a necessity. After the failure to construct a political union of the Six in 1962, de Gaulle realised that the future of Europe would depend on Germany's fate: cooperation between France and Germany had to be at the centre of a new Europe, and Germany had to choose between a European Europe and an American Europe. During de Gaulle's visit to Germany in

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Abstract only
Geoffrey K. Roberts

Democratic party, which developed and remained as a separate party: the CSU, was very much a Catholic party, reflecting the predominance of Catholicism among the population, and one that was jealous of Bavarian particularism, so was also not seen as suited to providing leadership to other Christian Democratic parties. The Rhineland party, led by the aged but ambitious former lord mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, was able to give such leadership, especially once Adenauer was elected as chairman of the Parliamentary Council which drafted the Basic Law and who then became

in German politics today (third edition)
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Lorena De Vita

’s deterrent power. And so, Ben-Gurion touched exactly upon this point in his first ever direct conversation with Konrad Adenauer. Figure 5.1 Konrad Adenauer and David Ben-Gurion in New York, 1960. Hannelore Siegel, the personal secretary who accompanied the West German Chancellor on his informal trip to the United States, was struck by how the two ‘got along well immediately’. 104 The meeting took place in the immediate aftermath of the anti-Semitic outbursts in West Germany, which so blatantly contradicted the new image which Adenauer had portrayed, and on

in Israelpolitik
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Debating Cold War anxieties in West Germany, 1945–90
Benjamin Ziemann

left-wing Social Democratic Party (SPD) perceived the ‘atomic age’ as positive, as a future characterised by a limitless supply of cheap electric energy.13 The prospect of nuclear destruction became a hotly contested topic in West German politics only in the wake of German rearmament. Public debate on this issue had started in 1950, and until the founding of the Bundeswehr rebuilt German armed forces within the framework of NATO in 1955. A crucial prerequisite of Germany’s return to (still limited) sovereignty, and its rearmament, was Chancellor Konrad Adenauer’s

in Understanding the imaginary war
Hardware or software?
Terry Macintyre

, then, were sound reasons why the MLF was an attractive proposition for Germany: not only would it help strengthen the bond between Washington and Bonn, but it would also put Germany in a better light as a committed member of the Alliance. As Wilhelm Grewe, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer’s Ambassador in Washington, observed, ‘we did not feel we could afford to reject an American offer of nuclear sharing’.23 The MLF debate has given rise to the suggestion that there were other motives behind German support for the American proposals. 52 Anglo-German relations Was there

in Anglo-German relations during the Labour governments 1964–70