OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU).159 Among the non-state actors opposing a given status quo, it
is likely that the insurgents (often labeled as “terrorists”) will be among the
most prolific rebels in current and future warfare.160 They are, however, not
alone. Thomas X. Hammes describes the new security threats as originating in “the increasing power of smaller and smaller entities” that are part of
networks, sharing information and resources in order to wreak large-scale
havoc. These non-state actors represent “causes” not states or nations.161
The threat these entities
quantify and count in a study such as the one provided by this book.
Principles not on the authoritative list
Analysis by precedent sometimes can
lead to principles not on the authoritative list. The African Court of
Human and People’s Rights’ Protocol starts by
“considering that the Charter of the OrganizationofAfricanUnity recognizes that freedom, equality, justice, peace and dignity are
essential objectives for the achievement of the legitimate
aspirations of the African peoples.” 21 In other words
Relations, 155–172; Link, Woodrow Wilson:
Revolution, War, and Peace, 98–99; Brendan Simms, Europe: The Struggle for
Supremacy, from 1453 to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 320–326;
Clive Archer, International Organizations, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 1992).
42 Mark W. Zacher, International Conflicts and Collective Security, 1946–77: The
United Nations, Organization of American States, OrganizationofAfricanUnity, and Arab League (New York: Praeger, 1979), 1.
43 Claude, Power and International Relations, 152.
44 Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement
humanitarian aid operations in Mogadishu.
The failure to address the worsening humanitarian situation in Somalia generated mounting international pressure for a large military humanitarian intervention. Although Africa lacked a powerful regional organisation such as the
EC, three organisations did adopt a proactive stance for Somalia’s assistance: the
OrganizationofAfricanUnity (OAU), the Arab League, and the OIC. They called
for heavy military intervention with official authorisation for the use of force. These
ideas received wide support from the international media and