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Hussein Solomon

in South Africa, 6 as new recruits were trained in the deadly arts accompanying the rise of militant Islam across the African continent. For all these reasons, an effective counterterrorism policy is essential. If one examines the country's legislative framework, on the face of it South Africa does have a clear and comprehensive counterterrorism strategy. The US State Department's June 2015 Country Reports on Terrorism argues that the South African Police Service (SAPS) Crime Intelligence Division, the Directorate for Priority Crime Investigation, the

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
A case study of MUHURI and HAKI Africa
Oscar Gakuo Mwangi

Introduction Kenya began prioritizing counter-terrorism efforts following the 9/11 attacks. The implementation of post-9/11 repressive state-led measures have led to the securitization of civil society organizations (CSOs) involved in counter-terrorism efforts in Kenya. The state socially constructs CSOs that advocate the rights of communities

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
A genealogy
Christopher Baker-Beall

2 Constructing the threat of terrorism in Western Europe and the European Union: a genealogy Introduction There can be little doubt that EU politicians and policy-makers view terrorism as one of the most pervasive threats to the security of the EU, its member states and its citizens. Speaking in 2008, the EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator (EU CTC) Gilles de Kerchove made this case by arguing that ‘terrorism remains the most significant actual threat facing democratic societies’.1 Drawing upon a ‘biological life’ metaphor, de Kerchove went on to state that the

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Zoha Waseem

Introduction Despite its position as a principal actor in the global war on terrorism since 2001, Pakistan has not adequately implemented counter-terrorism and security policies. Following the attacks on the Army Public School (APS) in Peshawar in 2014, Pakistan’s first official counter-terrorism policy, the National Action Plan (NAP), was

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Christian Kaunert

The European Union and the advent of international terrorism Amongst scholars of EU counter-terrorism, there are diverging opinions as to which extent EU competences matter in the fight against the global terrorist threat (Reinares, 2000 ; Dubois, 2002 ; den Boer and Monar, 2002 ; Mitsilegas and Gilmore, 2007; Occhipinti, 2003; Deflem, 2006 ; Bures, 2006, 2008

in European internal security
Emma Louise Briant

5 Anglo-American relations in the counter-terrorism propaganda war Introduction This chapter will begin by tracing developing patterns of divergence and convergence in the perceived interests dominant in each country’s leadership. The international system which permitted the emergence of a predominantly Anglo-American ‘war on terror’ was a security environment in transition. Former adversaries now competed in the marketplace of capitalism, with China a rising economic competitor to the US. The period was also characterised by the emerging international position

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
Scott N. Romaniuk, Emeka Thaddues Njoku, and Arundhati Bhattacharyya

Introduction and background Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, Western governments have primarily seen Bangladesh in the context of counter-terrorism and anti-terror activities. The growth of radical religious groups in Bangladesh has also become a matter of concern. Moreover, since the 1980s, Bangladesh has been a destination for aid from

in Counter-terrorism and civil society

Why did the Russian take-over of Crimea come as a surprise to so many observers in the academic practitioner and global-citizen arenas? The answer presented in this book is a complex one, rooted in late-Cold War dualities but also in the variegated policy patterns of the two powers after 1991. This book highlights the key developmental stages in the evolution of the Russian-American relationship in the post-Cold War world. The 2014 crisis was provoked by conflicting perspectives over the Balkan Wars of the 1990s, the expansion of NATO to include former communist allies of Russia as well as three of its former republics, the American decision to invade Iraq in 2003, and the Russian move to invade Georgia in 2008. This book uses a number of key theories in political science to create a framework for analysis and to outline policy options for the future. It is vital that the attentive public confront the questions raised in these pages in order to control the reflexive and knee-jerk reactions to all points of conflict that emerge on a regular basis between America and Russia.Key topics include struggles over the Balkans, the expansion of NATO, the challenges posed by terrorism to both nations, wars fought by both powers in the first decade of the twenty-first century, conflict over missile defence, reactions to post-2011 turmoil in the Middle East, and the mutual interest in establishing priorities in Asia.

Theoretical issues and local challenges

Recent years have seen the proliferation of discourses surrounding extremism and related terms. Encountering Extremism offers readers the opportunity to interrogate extremism through a plethora of theoretical perspectives, and to explore counter-extremism as it has materialised in plural local contexts. Through offering a critical interrogation along these two planes – the theoretical and the local – Encountering Extremism presents a unique, in-depth and critical analysis of a profoundly important subject. This book seeks to understand, and expose the implications of, a fundamental problematic: how should scholars and strategists alike understand the contemporary shift from counter-terrorism to counter-extremism?

Starting with a genealogical reflection on the discourse and practices of extremism, the book brings together authors examining the topic of extremism, countering extremism and preventing extremism from different theoretical perspectives, such as critical terrorism studies, postcolonialism and gender studies. It then turns to analyses of the specific consequences of this new discourse in international and local contexts such as the United Nations, Nigeria, Tunisia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Spain.

Communiqués and insurrectionary violence

Since the early 2000s, global, underground networks of insurrectionary anarchists have carried out thousands of acts of political violence. This book is an exploration of the ideas, strategies, and history of these political actors that engage in a confrontation with the oppressive powers of the state and capital. The vast majority of these attacks have been claimed via online communiqués through anonymous monikers such as the Informal Anarchist Federation (FAI). The emphasis of the insurrectionary, nihilist-infused anarchism is on creating war-like conditions for opposing capitalism, the state, and that which perpetuates structural violence (e.g. racism, poverty, speciesism, gender roles). To connect the various configurations of post-millennial, insurrectionary resistance, the book explores explore three of its most identifiable components, the FAI, Conspiracy of Cells of Fire (CCF), and emergent networks in Mexico. In his discussion of guerrilla warfare and terrorism, conflict theorist Richard Rubenstein points to a two-stage understanding advocated by Vietnamese leader and military strategist General Vo Nguyen Giap. The book also examines the strategy of Blanquism, the contribution of "classical anarchists," the influence of theorists such as Tiqqun and The Invisible Committee. It seeks to construct the basis for an insurrectionary framework based around a shared politic. The feminist methodology and ethic of research adds a great deal, including a reading of identity politics, standpoint theory, action-orientated research, and embedded, emotive and sincere participatory involvement. The design and methodological intent of the book is to embrace a "militant" form of inquiry which is counter to the project of securitization.